Perforation

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perforation

[‚pər·fə′rā·shən]
(ordnance)
Passage of a missile completely through an object.
(science and technology)
Any hole made by boring, punching, or piercing.

Perforation

 

(1) In botany, an opening in the cell membrane of a vessel in vascular plants. Water passes freely through the perforations and into the vessels. The perforations may be on the lateral and transverse walls of the cells. If a perforation is single, it is called a simple perforation (in the vessels of oaks and herbs). Multiple perforations are arranged in parallel series (scalariform perforations), in an irregular network (reticulate perforations), or as a group of approximately circular holes (foraminate perforations). Ferns have scalariform perforations, ivies reticulate perforations, and ephedras foraminate perforations.

(2) In medicine, the penetration of the wall of a hollow or tubular organ, for example, the intestine.


Perforation

 

in medicine, an opening or hole in the wall of a cavitary or tubular organ, as a result of which the cavity of the organ communicates with surrounding cavities or tissues.

Perforation may be caused by intrusion of a foreign body from the lumen of an organ (for example, perforation of the esophagus by a swallowed bone) or externally (a penetrating knife or bullet wound). It may also be caused by disruption of all layers of an organ by a pathological process, for example, perforation of an ulcer or tumor of the stomach or intestine or perforation of the vermiform appendix or the gallbladder with gangrenous appendicitis or cholecystitis.

When there is a perforation, the contents of a hollow organ, by penetrating surrounding tissue (periesophageal or perirectal) or the abdominal cavity, cause development of a rapidly progressing purulent inflammatory process called mediastinitis, paraproctitis, or peritonitis. Treatment consists in emergency surgery.

References in periodicals archive ?
412Better outcomes in closure of the ulcer perforation was obtained with an understanding of the importance of H.
A simplified prognostic scoring system for peptic ulcer perforation in developing countries.
Rising frequency of ulcer perforations in elderly people in the United Kingdom.
When there is no gas under diaphragm on X ray, the surgeon needs to be more vigilant for other pathologies as well as duodenal ulcer perforation because in 16.
Ulcer perforation is less frequent than haemorrhage, with around 2000 cases per year in those over 60 years [11], but is associated with a higher case fatality rate of up to 33% [12].
This study was mainly conducted to assess the risk factors affecting mortality and morbidity in peptic ulcer perforation.
Duodenal perforation is the commonest cause of perforation peritonitis (40%), second is prepyloric gastric ulcer perforation (23%), ileal perforation (18%), appendicular perforation (15%).
pylori will reduce this complication has led many investigators to find out the presence of Helicobacter pylori in duodenal ulcer perforation.
During the nineteenth century, ulcer perforation was a rare disease that occurred mainly in young women, with the perforations located near the cardia of the stomach.
To study the efficacy of Gastric seromuscular flap closure of Duodenal ulcer perforation over omental patch (Live/dead) in setting of unhealthy/absent omentum.
31 patients presented with duodenal ulcer perforation constituting 63.