ultimatum


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ultimatum

(ŭl'tĭmā`təm), in international law, final, definitive terms submitted by one disputant nation to the other for immediate acceptance or rejection. Since refusal to accept the terms may lead to war or hostile measures, an ultimatum usually constitutes a conditional declaration of war. An ultimatum is written and indicates how its nonacceptance will be regarded. When a brief time limit is imposed, the crisis becomes more intense, because there is less opportunity for mediation or arbitration. The contracting powers at the second Hague Conference (1907) agreed to begin hostilities only after giving warning. These provisions were superseded by the Covenant of the League of Nations and later by the Charter of the United Nations, which limited the right of states to use war as an instrument of national policy. An ultimatum presented by Austria to Serbia on July 23, 1914, was the immediate cause of World War I. Hitler also presented several ultimatums (to Czechoslovakia and Poland) in the year before the outbreak of World War II. Japan, however, began its war with the United States with an attack rather than an ultimatum.

Ultimatum

 

in international law, a categorical demand expressed either formally in writing or orally and presented by one state to another; it requires the state to which it is presented, within a prescribed period, to assume a certain position on an issue, to take a specific action, or to fulfill some other stated condition. Failure by the recipient of the ultimatum to accede to the demand or demands of the state issuing the ultimatum may result in the latter’s adoption of strong measures against the former. These measures may consist in the breaking off of negotiations in progress, in the severing of diplomatic relations between the disputing states, or in the adoption of sanctions, embargoes, or other kinds of reprisals.

ultimatum

a final communication by a party, esp a government, setting forth conditions on which it insists, as during negotiations on some topic
References in periodicals archive ?
Kouchner said Iran was seeking to "pirouette" around the real issue by "giving an ultimatum to those who have offered to help them.
one cannot escape the conclusion that the United States rushed to drop the bomb without any attempt to explore the readiness of some Japanese policymakers to seek peace through the ultimatum.
Talking to media persons on phone from an undisclosed location, Maulana Umar said: "If the NWFP government does not quit within five days of the ultimatum then Mujahideen of Tehrik-e-Taliban will carry out actions against the government.
The arch media proponent of both tools is, of course, broadcasting, benefiting from leaks people provide, writhing about leaks from within; never shy to use its dominant position to issue ultimatums.
Paul Downes, 53, from Aintree, who started the ultimatum group, said: "Liverpool members have been advised by Facebook to join the Manchester network.
But the ultimatum may also reflect an increasing displeasure and frustration on Moscow's part with Iran over its refusal to stop enriching uranium at its vast facility at Natanz.
On meeting the FBI agent, Ouassif was accused of having "jihadi" beliefs and presented with the ultimatum, which could have led to his being sent back to Morocco to face imprisonment--or worse.
The ultimatum from the regional Labour Party is aimed at former Middlesbrough Council leader Ken Walker.
Amid concerns that a lease agreement with the state has been put on the backburner until a deal with the National Football League is signed, museum officials issued the ultimatum to the California Science Center board of directors, the state entity negotiating the lease.
I was appalled when I read of the arrogance of the "conservative bishops and primates" who have issued an ultimatum to the Archbishop of Canterbury regarding invitations to bishops of the Episcopal Church in the United Stares and the Anglican Church of Canada to Lambeth (Archbishop unveils details for Lambeth, February).
The caretaker management of Serbian national carrier JAT Airways issued an ultimatum on Tuesday (22 March) over what it claimed was an illegal walkout.
She was later given an ultimatum to either quit or be fired but was not told why the ultimatum was being issued.