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Related to ultramontanism: Gallicanism


(ŭl'trəmŏn`tənĭzəm) [Lat.,=beyond the mountains, i.e., the Alps], formerly, point of view of Roman Catholics who supported the pope as supreme head of the church, as distinct from those who professed GallicanismGallicanism
, in French Roman Catholicism, tradition of resistance to papal authority. It was in opposition to ultramontanism, the view that accorded the papacy complete authority over the universal church.
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 or other tendencies opposing the papal jurisdiction. The term was used principally in France by Gallicans, especially before the French Revolution, but it was revived in 19th-century Germany by the group that left the church as Old CatholicsOld Catholics,
Christian denomination established by German Catholics who separated themselves from the Roman Catholic Church when they rejected (1870) the decrees of the First Vatican Council, especially the dogma of the infallibility of the pope.
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 after the First Vatican CouncilVatican Council, First,
1869–70, the 20th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church (see council, ecumenical), renowned chiefly for its enunciation of the doctrine of papal infallibility.
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. The term is now obsolete, since all those in communion with the pope accept his supremacy. See papacypapacy
, office of the pope, head of the Roman Catholic Church. He is pope by reason of being bishop of Rome and thus, according to Roman Catholic belief, successor in the see of Rome (the Holy See) to its first bishop, St. Peter.
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a religious and political trend in Catholicism. Adherents of ultramontanism maintain that the pope has supreme power in ecclesiastical matters and the right to intervene in the secular affairs of any state. First enunciated as a doctrine at the Council of Constance (1414-18), ultramontanism was firmly supported by the Jesuits in the 16th century. In the first half of the 19th century, it was advocated by members of reactionary aristocratic circles, for example, J. M. de Maistre, who saw a centralized church headed by the pope as an effective weapon against revolution. The ideas of ultramontanism were embodied in the Syllabus of Errors (1864) and in the resolutions of the First Vatican Council (1869-70). During the age of imperialism, ultramontanism was adapted to new historical circumstances, and it became the banner of clerical forces opposed to the labor movement and to socialism.

References in periodicals archive ?
Reactionary ultramontanism faced the exterior obstacle of liberalism's triumph.
This tired liberal cliche does not conform to the author's own account of Maistre, since his call for the liberty of the Church reveals "a core of liberalism at the heart of ultramontanism.
Ultramontanism refers to the idea developed from medieval times that the ultimate authority in the Catholic Church rests not with a secular prince but--beyond the mountains--with the Pope.
In addition, the development of Ultramontanism inside the French Church played into the hands of Church opponents who always accused priests to be agents of a foreign entity, which was bent on weakening France.
In 1841, before he had come to adhere to Ultramontanism as a movement, Wiseman had already applied this principle to the ever self-revising Newman, asking in an open letter to Newman that was read by its addressee, "Why not suspect your judgments, if you find that they vary?
Ultramontanism had its time," the priests wrote, referring to the movement for strong papal authority that led to the 1870 proclamation of the dogma of papal infallibility.
Like Dante and Pascal, enemies respectively of ultramontanism and Jesuitry, Hopkins, with his unextinguishable inherited conscience, could ponder ambiguities that were always resolving, digesting, smelting, into newer glories of revelation: like the Sun of Heraclitus-Scotinus, eternally divine, yet every day renewed; or like the dialogue, in the Sun of Paradiso, between those symbiotic antagonists of the Middle Ages, Dominic and Francis.
a fierce struggle against Ultramontanism plus opposition, which sometimes took the form of physical protest, to any form of central government organization.
Religious fervor was revitalized and the groundwork laid for an ultramontanism whose fundamental tenet was superiority of religious over secular power.
It has been dominated by Ultramontanism (an ultraconservative ideology, which in the second half of the 19th century in Quebec, affirmed the presence of the Roman Catholic Church over the state in many "worldly" matters) right up to the Quiet Revolution.