underdevelopment


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underdevelopment

[¦ən·dər·də¦vel·əp·mənt]
(graphic arts)
Insufficient development of a photographic print; processing to a degree lower than the optimum density.

underdevelopment

  1. the general state of a society yet to undergo major social and economic development, particularly by INDUSTRIALIZATION and MODERNIZATION.
  2. a process whereby a society, especially its economy, changes under the influence of another society which becomes dominant. Baran (1957), Furtado (1964) and FRANK (1967b) formulated the concept in opposition to prevailing economic theories of change in the THIRD WORLD, and in particular to the theory of MODERNIZATION in the SOCIOLOGY OF DEVELOPMENT. As argued by Frank and Baran, ECONOMIC SURPLUS is said to be transferred out of the dominated society, making economic growth there difficult or impossible. Commercial ports and élites in the Third World absorb some of the surplus, but most is absorbed in the dominant societies in a METROPOLIS-SATELLITE relationship. The underdeveloped economy has certain activities encouraged at the expense of others. The industrial countries were interested in developing mineral and agricultural products from the Third World as supplies to their own economies. The Third World countries were in turn seen as potential markets for manufactured goods. Thus, underdevelopment was a condition which already industrialized societies had not experienced. This led to the conclusion that the processes of industrialization experienced in Western Europe and the US were not repeatable in the Third World, not least since the starting points were radically different. This economic relationship had important consequences for social, political and cultural processes, so broadening out the concept of underdevelopment to embrace most aspects of society.
The concept has been criticized by Marxists for being overreliant on reference to market forces to explain economic problems in the Third World, for overstressing external rather than internal processes, for underestimating the prospects of industrialization in the Third World, and for having a weak concept of economic surplus at its centre (Brenner, 1977). However, shorn of its more particular usages, the term is frequently used to refer to Third World societies because of the central notion that they confront problems of development different from those faced by the already industrialized countries. See also DEPENDENCY THEORY, WORLD SYSTEMS. Compare IMPERIALISM, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT, UNEVEN DEVELOPMENT.
References in periodicals archive ?
Its infrastructure deficits and levels of its human development have continued to hamper any meaningful development that would make a difference to poverty and underdevelopment,'' he said.
Presence of the colonialists in different parts of the world has always been a cause of tension, underdevelopment and dependence," Larijani said at a meeting with his visiting Comorian counterpart Burhan Hamid today.
Notwithstanding this, given the relative underdevelopment of the insurance market, GCR views the current level of expenditure to be an impediment to financial flexibility, assuming claims costs rise as the market matures.
Bulgaria's North, especially the northwest and the extreme northeast has been suffering from underdevelopment, economic slowdown and demographic depletion more than the southern regions of the country.
The report of the APU General Secretariat stressed the necessity of combating diseases, ignorance and underdevelopment and fighting medicine and food counterfeiting.
African countries, without an exception, are generally categorized among "third world countries" which are characterized by underdevelopment of their human and natural resources and the poor quality of life of the majority of their citizenry.
Solutions to the problems of economic underdevelopment have been for many years offered mainly by economists who embrace the neoclassical model, the dominant paradigm world-wide.
In this first of three volumes Odunsi introduces his readers to the idea that perhaps governments have been approaching the problem of persistent underdevelopment and persistent poverty in the wrong ways and that social science the camp that provided the foundation for the current approach to social issues at a global scale has been doing more harm than good.
He said that there was a growing international consensus to tackle poverty, underdevelopment and ignorance.
He cited abject poverty, underdevelopment, marginalisation, social exclusion and economic discrepancies and occupation as violations.
He said the marginalisation of women had helped contribute to the underdevelopment of Africa.
The mediocrity with which Africa has been ruled is responsible for African underdevelopment.