The activity budget hypothesis predicts (1) Females spent more time on feeding than males; (2) In order to maintain the behavioral synchrony of group activities, the same sex ungulate
tend to coalesce into single-sex groups (Ruckstuhl, 2007).
In studies where considerable ungulate
consumption were found, golden jackals (Aiyadurai & Jhala 2006) or similar, medium-sized Canis species (Moehlman 1987), consumed prey remains of larger predators or eat carrion, which were usually remains left from official hunting or poaching (Lanszki & Heltai 2002, Radovic & Kovacic 2010, Boskovic et al.
Speaking at the opening ceremony, Constantinos Nicolaides, the Interior Ministry Permanent Secretary, said that participation showed the increased interest that exists in the protection of mountain ungulates
, "from the European Alps to the Himalayas, in Canada`s Rocky Mountains, the vast Siberia, as well in the Troodos mountains" in Cyprus.
No studies have examined habitat influences on the decay and disappearance of ungulate
pellets in the boreal forest of northwestern North America.
Wolves affect soil nitrogen in Rocky Mountain grasslands through altering levels of ungulate
herbivory (Frank, 2008), but our study failed to find evidence for nitrogen effects in a Great Lakes forest.
Measuring winter browse utilization of trees and shrubs by ungulates
is performed by ecologists to understand ungulate
diet choice and feeding requirements, and to provide important information for sound range and ungulate
management programs (Jensen and Urness 1981).
Wolves (Canis lupus) are efficient, coursing predators whose ability to maintain kill rates at the level needed to meet nutritional requirements allows them to persist down to low ungulate
However status distribution and abundance of many ungulate
species are yet unknown.
The reconstruction of palaeoecology of ungulate
remains is largely dependent on their palaeodietary inferences (Bibi and Gulec 2008).
During studies throughout the Southwest, we often observed desert ungulates
consuming succulents, especially during drought (Fig.
In Europe, the number of wildlife-vehicle accidents (WVA) with ungulates
was estimated at about 500 000 per year, with 300 human fatalities and over 30 000 human injuries, along with over one billion dollars of damage (Groot Bruinderink, Hazebroek 1996).
Once, over a quarter of a century ago, I was fortunate enough to see an okapi (Okapia johnstoni), that committee-designed ungulate
of equatorial Africa, when I was travelling through what is now the Congo.