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(păs'cho͝orĭzā`shən, –rīzā`shən), partial sterilization of liquids such as milk, orange juice, wine, and beer, as well as cheese, to destroy disease-causing and other undesirable organisms. The process is named for the French scientist Louis PasteurPasteur, Louis
, 1822–95, French chemist. He taught at Dijon, Strasbourg, and Lille, and in Paris at the École normale supérieure and the Sorbonne (1867–89).
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, who discovered in the 1860s that undesired fermentation could be prevented in wine and beer by heating it to 135°F; (57°C;) for a few minutes. Milk is pasteurized by heating it to about 145°F; (63°C;) for 30 min or by the "flash" method of heating to 160°F; (71°C;) for 15 sec, followed by rapid cooling to below 50°F; (10°C;), at which temperature it is stored. The harmless lactic acid bacteria survive the process, but if the milk is not kept cold, they multiply rapidly and cause it to turn sour.



the heating of liquids or foods generally to a temperature of 60°-70°C for 15–30 min. In the process, nonspore-forming bacteria are destroyed, but complete sterilization does not result since bacterial spores can withstand such heating. Proposed by L. Pasteur, the method is mainly used to preserve food products that cannot tolerate heating to higher temperatures.

Milk, wine, beer, and other beverages and various foods are pasteurized on an industrial scale. It is recommended that once they are pasteurized, they be kept at a low temperature in order to prevent the germination of bacterial spores.

A related process is fractional sterilization, or tyndallization. After routine pasteurization, the product is cooled and kept for some time at room temperature. When the surviving spores begin to germinate, the product is pasteurized again. Pasteurization is sometimes repeated three or four times.

Milk, cream, juices, and other beverages are pasteurized in centrifugal, tubular, or lamellar pasteurizers. The product is quickly and briefly heated to comparatively high temperatures (up to 100°C) as it continuously flows in a thin layer between the heating surfaces. It is then poured into hermetically sealed containers. Foods that are already bottled or canned are pasteurized by heating with steam while the containers are constantly rotated. Pasteurization of already packaged products using high-frequency sources of heat is a promising development.


(science and technology)
The application of heat to matter for a specified time to destroy harmful microorganisms or other undesirable species.
References in periodicals archive ?
Currently, the sale of raw or unpasteurized milk is legal in at least 30 states, including Texas, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics.
The starter culture was added after cooking; the bean product was then fermented until it formed a dense cake, and the unpasteurized product was packaged, frozen, and shipped.
policymakers to reduce restrictions on the sale of unpasteurized milk despite the scientific evidence that consumption of unpasteurized milk is relatively riskier than pasteurized milk.
Raw milk advocates claim that unpasteurized milk cures or prevents disease, but no scientific evidence supports this notion.
Mass Treatment of Humans Who Drank Unpasteurized Milk from Rabid Cows-Massachusetts, 1996-1998, 48(11) MORBIDITY & MORTALITY WEEKLY REP'T 228, 228-229 (Mar.
But Nolt's customers knew what they were buying--in fact, they explicitly wanted unpasteurized milk, regardless of its risk.
Some farmers who sell meat, unpasteurized dairy products, and unpasteurized cider directly to consumers are finding themselves in conflict with federal and state agricultural and health authorities.
However, unpasteurized milk may contain disease-causing organisms, such as salmonella, E.
Leppert said a bottle of raw unpasteurized kombucha along with a couple of carrots every morning gives him a boost that's better than coffee.
It contains a similar profile of polyphenolic compounds as unpasteurized pomegranate juice concentrate studied in clinical research, without any of the sugar, calories or additives.