The tensor veli palatini is responsible for stabilizing the upper airway
during the respiratory cycle, while the genioglossus is the main dilator muscle of the upper airway
In his study, van de Graaff measured the upper airway
resistance (UAR) in tracheotomized dogs under two test conditions: 1) in the presence of and 2) in the absence of upper airway
But to date, the relationship between the structural abnormity of upper airway
and pathogenesis of OSA still remains unclear.
31 This could be accompanied by an increase in the upper airway
space and could be favorable for breathing.
5 Oral devices (ODs) are designed to improve upper airway
configuration and prevent collapse through alteration of jaw and tongue position.
function and dysfunction in respiration.
Early diagnosis and intervention is important in children to prevent fatal complication like severe upper airway
obstruction leading to morbidity and mortality due to this rare entity.
Delimitation of the upper airway
TV (nasopharynx and oropharynx) was conducted by an initial analysis of a sagittal plane image reconstruction.
Sleep specialists have carved out a diagnostic niche called upper airways
resistance syndrome (UARS) for children (and adults) who don't have overt sleep apnea and may not even snore but still can't get a good night's sleep.
Important components likely include pharyngeal anatomy (38,39), pharyngeal dilator muscle responsiveness to respiratory challenges during sleep (40-43), the arousal threshold (propensity to wake up from sleep) (44,45), the instability of the negative feedback control system regulating ventilation (loop gain) (46-48), and upper airway
tethering via caudal traction from changes in end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) (49-52).
The purpose of this article is to review the anatomy and physiology of the upper airway
, analyze the rationale and function of a tracheotomy by comparing the types of tracheotomy tubes, and provide evidence-based practice tips for care of the patient with a tracheotomy.
The culprits are aldehydes, toxic chemicals in cigarette smoke and car exhaust, which circumvent the upper airway
filter, and work their way into the lungs and into the bloodstream.