urinalysis


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urinalysis

(yo͝or'ənăl`ĭsĭs), clinical examination of urineurine,
clear, amber-colored fluid formed by the kidneys that carries metabolic wastes out of the body (see urinary system). As the blood circulates it collects excretory products from the tissues and these substances are separated from the blood by the kidneys and eliminated
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 for the purpose of medical diagnosis. Urine is initially examined for such characteristics as color, odor, and specific gravity. It is routinely tested for acidity, as indicated by its pH reading, and screened for sugar, ketone bodies, proteins, and bile content. Benedict's solution, for example, may be used to test for simple sugars, a high level of which is a possible indicator of diabetes mellitus. Ketone bodies, e.g., acetone and acetoacetic acid, in the urine indicate the substitution of fats for sugar in the energy cycle and are another indication of diabetes mellitus. Abnormal levels of protein may be signs of kidney disease. A high concentration of bile in the urine is a sign of liver malfunction or blockage of the bile duct. Urine is examined microscopically to determine blood count. High levels of erythrocytes, or red blood cells, and leukocytes, or white blood cells, may be a result of bleeding and infection, respectively, in the urinary tract. Casts, crystals, and other substances, whose origins may be ascertained by determining their chemical structures, can be observed microscopically. Additional studies are performed when specific malfunctions are suspected. Clearance tests, for instance, will determine the ability of the kidneys to remove waste substances from the blood plasma per unit of time. The urine of patients with melanotic cancer will often contain melanin, a skin pigment. A diagnosis of drug addiction may be confirmed by the presence of specific chemical substances in the urine. Urinalysis is also employed to test for pregnancy. Pregnant women secrete high levels of gonadotrophic, or ovary-regulating, hormones from the placenta. A reagent containing gonadotrophic hormones is mixed with a sample of urine from the patient, and gonadotrophic antigens are added to it. Failure of the antigens to clump, or agglutinate, is positive evidence of pregnancy.

urinalysis

[‚yu̇r·ə′nal·ə·səs]
(pathology)
Analysis of the urine, involving chemical, physical, and microscopic tests.
References in periodicals archive ?
CT KUB was preceded in all the patients by urinalysis for presence of pus cells and/or red blood cells.
Not surprisingly, processing body fluids on a urinalysis platform can benefit numerous areas of the lab.
One also might posit that the lack of agreement or difference in some of the urinalysis parameter measurements could have to do with the MSCC being collected first with urine that has been sitting in the bladder versus the straight catheterization performed after the bladder was emptied for the MSCC.
After that date, urinalysis results will no longer be sent via naval message.
The underlying diseases and follow-up in Taiwanese children screened by urinalysis.
A number of studies have found that after a single urinalysis, 3%-5% of healthy school-aged children might have asymptomatic microscopic hematuria.
There is also the potential for new biomarkers for ATN, such as NGAL and KIM-1, and urologic cancers (Table 1) along with more traditional urine chemistry tests such as creatinine and [micro]ALB to be added to routine urinalysis.
Using standard urinalysis, one-third of the infections were missed.
The first automated urine cell analyzer, developed in 1995, transformed urinalysis from a time-consuming and labor-intensive process to an unattended one.
Very young infants usually require a urine culture regardless of the urinalysis result, but given the invasiveness of a urine culture, knowing which older infants can be sufficiently tested for a urinary tract infection (UTI) with a screening urinalysis is more efficient for the pediatrician and less stressful for the child, they said.
Urinalysis Products - ADVIA Urinalysis WorkCell, CLINITEK([R]) Atlas, Advantus and Status urinalysis instruments, and Mulistix([R]) urinalysis reagent products
The urinalysis section of the lab at Fairview Ridges Hospital in Burnsville, MN, exemplifies the successful application of the automation-plus-management-science approach.