In September 2015, an unvaccinated 45-year-old man who worked on a farm in Carangola County, Minas Gerais State, Brazil (20[degrees]44'06"S, 42[degrees]01'52"W), showed development of typical manifestations of vaccinia
infection, including fever and painful vesiculopustular lesions (online Technical Appendix Figure, panel A, https://wwwnc.
Although inadvertent inoculation is a recognized adverse event following vaccination with vaccinia
virus, neither NMDOH nor four of five other public health departments were aware that this study was being conducted, demonstrating the need for communication among commercial sites and state and local health departments to ensure establishment of mutually acceptable patient care protocols.
However, large-scale use of the vaccinia
virus as an expression system has raised various safety issues over its broad host range, ability to infect and cause disease among laboratory personals handling it.
One more piece in the VACV ecological puzzle: could peridomestic rodents be the link between wildlife and bovine vaccinia
outbreaks in Brazil?
Lead researcher Dr Sepideh Gholami, from Stanford University in California, US, said: "The reason we used the vaccinia
virus is it is a member of the small pox family, and, as we know, small pox vaccine has been given to millions of people to eradicate small pox.
In a further extension of the accordion analogy, in addition to observing rapid gene expansion in the E3L-deficient strain of vaccinia
, the researchers also observed that the virus contracted after acquiring an adaptive mutation, swapping a beneficial mutation for a smaller genomic footprint.
Now, using close observation of multiple generations of the vaccinia
virus and robust methods of genetic sequencing, the scientists have identified an expansion of the K3L gene that enables vaccinia
to defeat protein kinase R and compete in the arms race against the immune system.
virus is responsible for an important zoonotic disease affecting cattle and human beings in Brazil.
The incident underscores the need for lab workers who work with vaccinia
virus to be vaccinated against smallpox, according to the study's authors, as well as to follow recommended safety practices.
National Institutes of Health described how they inserted five key components of the H5N1 virus into the vaccinia
A phase I trial of rV-CEA, a vaccinia
vaccine, in advanced colorectal cancer showed that one injection could increase T-cell response to tumors.
The tumor-targeting vaccinia
virus known as JX-594 was injected directly into subjects' tumors every three weeks.