Vagus Nerve


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Vagus Nerve

 

in man, the tenth pair of cranial nerves, a paired mixed nerve containing motor, sensory, and autonomic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) fibers. The vagus nerve has three nuclei in the medulla oblongata in common with the glossopharyngeal nerve—the dorsal nucleus (autonomic); the ventral, or ambiguus, nucleus (motor); and the nucleus of the so-called tractus solitarius (sensory). The sensory fibers of the vagus nerve originate in two ganglia (superior and inferior) situated outside the cranium in the region of the jugular foramen. They then enter the cranial cavity and proceed to the medulla oblongata, from which they emerge with the vagus nerve through the jugular foramen. The vagus nerve is located in the neck with the carotid artery and jugular vein. It penetrates to the thorax, from which, together with the esophagus, it passes through the diaphragm into the abdominal cavity, forming plexuses on the walls of the esophagus, stomach, and so on. The motor fibers of the vagus nerve supply the muscles of the larynx, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines, blood vessels, and heart (inhibition of cardiac activity, regulation of blood pressure, and so forth). The sensory fibers of the vagus nerve supply the occipital portions of the dura mater, the neck organs, stomach, and lungs. The vagus nerve participates in many reflex acts (swallowing, coughing, vomiting, filling and emptying of the stomach) and in regulation of the heartbeat and breathing. It is also part of the solar plexus. Injury to the motor nuclei of the vagus nerve impairs swallowing, phona-tion, articulation, and respiration—that is, the so-called bulbar disturbances, which occur in bulbar paralysis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, myeloencephalitis, and other diseases.

REFERENCES

Mnogotomnoe rukovodstvo po nevrologii, vol. 1, book 1. Edited by N. I. Grashchenkov. Moscow, 1959.
Clara, M. Das Nervensystem des Menschen, 2nd ed. Leipzig, 1953.
References in periodicals archive ?
Vagus nerve stimulation for refractory epilepsy in children: More to VNS than seizure frequency reduction.
Cutting the vagus nerve or blocking its activity with drugs stopped acetate from boosting insulin levels.
2-k) diverged from ventral side of this ganglion was connected to vagus nerve (Figs.
The report reviews the major players involved in the development of Vagus Nerve Stimulators and list all their pipeline projects
After the stimulation of the vagus nerve for 6–65 months, the McHugh classifications and modified Engel classification were reviewed.
The anterior Vagus nerve supplies the cardiac orifice and then divides near the upper end of the lesser curvature into gastric branches, pyloric branches and hepatic branches.
We report an unusual swelling in a 14 year old boy with Schwannoma of the cervical vagus nerve mimicking Glomus tumor on a MRI scan.
Options for epilepsy surgery include resective surgery, corpus callosotomy, multiple subpial transections and the vagus nerve stimulator (VNS Therapy[R]).
The VNS Therapy System uses an implanted medical device that delivers pulsed electrical signals to the vagus nerve.
In the same vein, vagus nerve stimulation' and deep brain stimulation2 also could be added to a thorough evaluation of treatment resistance, because these techniques may be used increasingly in the future.
Very true," the mouse said, "but the vagus nerve runs directly between the gut and the brain, so that may have something to do with it.