valence electron


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valence electron

[′vā·ləns i‚lek‚trän]
(atomic physics)
An electron that belongs to the outermost shell of an atom.
(solid-state physics)
References in periodicals archive ?
Atoms with one or two valence electrons, such as sodium and potassium, have low electronegativity and lose their valence electrons easily, whereas atoms with five to seven valence electrons, such as nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine, are highly electronegative and, additionally, tend to remove electrons from less electronegative atoms.
Heavier (higher atomic weight) elements with the same number of valence electrons are less electronegative than their lighter counterparts.
As it is well known, the conventional representation of the Hydrogen molecule characterizes a four-body system due to the independence of the orbitals of the two valence electrons as requested by quantum chemistry, under which conditions no exact solution is possible.
The main hypothesis of the model describes how the valence electrons become involved in a binding process when they are at very short distance giving rise to a new state or quasi-particle, called isoelectronium.
Review the relationship between valence electrons and bonding for each atom with the students.
In that case, valence electrons, the electrons that bind the atoms together in the crystal (which are not the same as the conduction electrons that form electric currents) jump from one atom to another, causing force distortions that bind the conduction electrons in pairs.