values


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Financial, Idioms, Wikipedia.
Related to values: family values

values

  1. ethical ideals and beliefs. The term is often used to distinguish scientific knowledge from ‘values’, especially where such ‘ethical’ ideals, ‘oughts’, etc. are held not to be, or as inherently incapable of ever being, 'scientific’. See also FACT-VALUE DISTINCTION, POSITIVISM, VALUE FREEDOM AND VALUE NEUTRALITY.
  2. the central beliefs and purposes of an individual or society. In Talcott PARSONS’ structural-functionalism internalized 'shared values’ are regarded as playing a decisive role in the social integration of any society (see also CONSENSUS). Criticism of this view is that it overstates the extent to which social integration depends on shared values and understates the importance of political or economic POWER (see also OVERSOCIALIZED CONCEPTION OF MAN; CONFLICT THEORY).
Most sociologists recognize that societies can exist even though riven by value divisions, and that an adherence to prevailing beliefs and values is often expedient or pragmatic rather than deeply held (e.g. see DEFERENCE). Equally, however, most sociologists also acknowledge that naked economic or political force is rarely the sole basis of social integration (e.g. is an unstable basis of political power) and that values usually play an important role (see POLITICAL LEGITIMACY).

In a similar way to criticisms of functionalism, Marxist theories which posit a dominant role for IDEOLOGIES in the maintenance of social power are also criticized for overemphasizing the role of internalized beliefs and values (see DOMINANT IDEOLOGY THESIS).

References in classic literature ?
A monster petition praying that the holding back from the laborer of any portion of the net value produced by his labor be declared a felony.
Of course the value of genius to us is in the veracity of its report.
Certainly no one could blame them for being too arrogant or haughty, and yet everybody was well aware that they were proud and quite understood their own value.
Surely nothing could be better, hardly anything more directly fitted than careful reading of Wordsworth, to counter the faults and offences of our busy generation, in regard both to thought and taste, and to remind people, amid the enormous expansion, at the present time, of all that is material and mechanical in life, of the essential value, the permanent ends, of life itself.
Interest on mortgages won't anywhere near eat up the increase in land values, and I'll be selling land right along.
And sitting there on the stringer-piece in my shame, I did a great deal of thinking and transvaluing of values.
These qualities, it is true, are those pre-eminently of the "Works and Days": the literary values of the "Theogony" are of a more technical character, skill in ordering and disposing long lists of names, sure judgment in seasoning a monotonous subject with marvellous incidents or episodes, and no mean imagination in depicting the awful, as is shown in the description of Tartarus (ll.
In general the doctrine of the Superman can only be understood correctly in conjunction with other ideas of the author's, such as:--the Order of Rank, the Will to Power, and the Transvaluation of all Values.
He was neither so unjust, nor so ungrateful, as to leave his estate from his nephew;--but he left it to him on such terms as destroyed half the value of the bequest.
Some ran for security to the mountains, others took up arms to oppose our landing, but were soon reconciled to us, and brought us fowls, fish, and sheep, in exchange for India calicoes, on which they set a great value.
Now, can there be a worse disgrace than this--that I should be thought to value money more than the life of a friend?
Neither the value of lands, nor the numbers of the people, which have been successively proposed as the rule of State contributions, has any pretension to being a just representative.