values


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Financial, Idioms, Wikipedia.
Related to values: family values

values

  1. ethical ideals and beliefs. The term is often used to distinguish scientific knowledge from ‘values’, especially where such ‘ethical’ ideals, ‘oughts’, etc. are held not to be, or as inherently incapable of ever being, 'scientific’. See also FACT-VALUE DISTINCTION, POSITIVISM, VALUE FREEDOM AND VALUE NEUTRALITY.
  2. the central beliefs and purposes of an individual or society. In Talcott PARSONS’ structural-functionalism internalized 'shared values’ are regarded as playing a decisive role in the social integration of any society (see also CONSENSUS). Criticism of this view is that it overstates the extent to which social integration depends on shared values and understates the importance of political or economic POWER (see also OVERSOCIALIZED CONCEPTION OF MAN; CONFLICT THEORY).
Most sociologists recognize that societies can exist even though riven by value divisions, and that an adherence to prevailing beliefs and values is often expedient or pragmatic rather than deeply held (e.g. see DEFERENCE). Equally, however, most sociologists also acknowledge that naked economic or political force is rarely the sole basis of social integration (e.g. is an unstable basis of political power) and that values usually play an important role (see POLITICAL LEGITIMACY).

In a similar way to criticisms of functionalism, Marxist theories which posit a dominant role for IDEOLOGIES in the maintenance of social power are also criticized for overemphasizing the role of internalized beliefs and values (see DOMINANT IDEOLOGY THESIS).

References in periodicals archive ?
On the McCords' 1996 gift tax returns, the gifts' taxable values were based on the gross FMV transferred to the nonexempt donees ($6,910,933), reduced by the total Federal gift taxes payable and the actuarially determined present value of their obligations for additional estate taxes under Sec.
Although data on some private transactions are available, data is normally limited, and its use should be reserved as a cross-check on values derived by other methods.
That brings us to the key word in this series: values.
In column K the intrinsic values of the option at the corresponding nodes are computed using Excel IF statements to determine whether the stock prices at those nodes exceed the option's exercise price.
As with consideration, remeasurement of the fair values of assets acquired and liabilities assumed, as well as the fair value of the acquiree as a whole, may occur during the measurement period, but any required adjustment thereafter only would be made to correct an error.
Architecture seems caught in a trap between culture and commerce, or between its ability to express diverse and complex values, and the obligations it carries to create value, as Dickon Robinson puts it.
1) At this time, it does not expand the use of fair values in the primary financial statements.
This paper is based on a second interpretation of the objectives of a CIPM key comparison: Generally, the participants of a CIPM key comparison are NMIs that are members of the appropriate Consultative Committee; at least some of these NMIs provide realizations of the SI values to establish the traceability of measurements made in their countries.
Their business values will continue to be defined through conventional cost frameworks.
The purchasing company must assign a value to all of the tangible and intangible assets purchased and record these asset values on its balance sheet.