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Reverse circulation of blood in the heart due to defective functioning of the valves.
Bringing back into the mouth undigested food from the stomach.


(religion, spiritualism, and occult)

Many of the early materialization mediums were accused of fraud, with the explanation that the ectoplasm that they produced was, in fact, physical material that they had swallowed and then regurgitated. This theory was first propounded in 1922 by the Society for Psychical Research (SPR) in the case of Eva C.. The medium Eva Carriere was visiting London and being investigated by the SPR. Professor Charles Richet said, “They [the SPR] admit that the only possible trickery is regurgitation. But what is meant by that? How can masses of mobile substance, organized as hands, faces, and drawings, be made to emerge from the oesophagus or the stomach? … How, when the medium’s hands are tied and held, could papers be unfolded, put away and made to pass through a veil?"

At a séance on November 26, 1913, conducted by Baron von Schrenck-Notzing, a strong emetic was given to Eva to answer the charge that the ectoplasm was actually regurgitated material. It satisfied the researchers that she had swallowed nothing. A number of experiments took place at Dr. Gustav Geley’s laboratories in 1917 and 1918. Nearly 150 scientists and others witnessed the sittings.

To state that the medium had “obviously regurgitated material” became a typical dismissal of a medium’s performance by a researcher either too lazy to fully investigate or too skeptical to accept what was being proven before his eyes. However, there certainly were fraudulent mediums who did swallow cheesecloth and similar material and attempt to regurgitate it to create an ectoplasmic effect. One such was Helen Duncan, who was examined by the National Laboratory of Psychical Research. Following this, the Morning Post of July 14, 1931, carried an article claiming that Duncan had been caught out and exposed as a fraud. Researcher Harry Price called her “one of the cleverest frauds in the history of Spiritualism.” It transpired that the “ectoplasm” was in fact a composition of wood pulp and egg white, which she was able to swallow and then regurgitate. On July 17, the Light carried a followup article also branding her as a fraud and carrying a confession from her husband.


Fodor, Nandor: Encyclopedia of Psychic Science. London: Arthurs Press, 1933
The International Survivalist Society:
Psychic News, #3754, June 19, 2004. Stansted, Essex
Leonard, Sue (ed): Quest For the Unknown—Life Beyond Death. Pleasantville: Reader’s Digest, 1992
References in periodicals archive ?
We found a good relation between the severity of valvular regurgitation, especially for aortic regurgitation, and CE on echocardiography; however only a poor relation was detected between the severity of valvular regurgitation and CE on chest radiography.
Conclusion: In conclusion, prediction of severity of valvular regurgitation using chest radiography may lead to false interpretations and so, plain chest radiography may not be an essential part of the routine evaluation of such patients.
Although the usefulness of the chest radiogram in detecting cardiac enlargement has been known for decades, we noticed a mismatch between chest radiography, and clinical/echocardiographic findings in the setting of the left heart valvular regurgitation in our daily practices.
In the study published in the current issue of the Anatolian Journal of Cardiology, the cardiothoracic ratios of 107 patients with left heart valvular regurgitation were compared with left ventricular dimensions by echocardiography (8).
Patients with significant valvular regurgitation other than AR (greater than mild valvular regurgitation of another valve), any systolic gradient >10 mm Hg across the aortic or pulmonic valve, evidence of any degree of mitral or tricuspid stenosis, congenital heart disease, or non sinus rhythm were excluded.
They were very good at identifying left ventricular dysfunction and clinically significant valvular regurgitations.