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Constriction or narrowing, as of the heart or blood vessels.



the narrowing of a physiological opening or the lumen of a tubular organ. Examples of the former include stenosis of the left atrioventricular orifice of the heart, or mitral stenosis. Examples of the latter include stenosis of the intestine, trachea, bronchi, arteries, or pylorus of the stomach (pylorostenosis).

Stenoses may be congenital (developmental anomalies) or acquired, in which case they may be caused by a tumor or by scarring following an inflammatory process, ulcer, or trauma. Organic strictures are distinguished from functional stenoses, which result from a spasm of the musculature. Severe stenosis hampers the movement of blood, food, and air, and consequently the musculature of the organ located above the stenosis hypertrophies (compensated stenosis). Later, muscle tone decreases, the lumen of the organ above the stricture enlarges substantially, and the movement through the narrowed part becomes disrupted (decompensated stenosis).

Stenosis is treated surgically by enlarging the affected orifice, as in some cases of heart disease, by passing a bougie through the structure involved, by excising the constricted part, or by performing plastic surgery.

References in periodicals archive ?
The resulting diminution in venous return and hypotension, may negatively affect patients with volume dependent cardiac lesions like aortic valvular stenosis or left ventricular systolic dysfunction.
The units were not fitted for spectral Doppler analysis; the absence of spectral Doppler meant that diagnoses of pulmonary hypertension and valvular stenosis had to be inferred from the two-dimensional and color Doppler readings.
0 mmol/L or taking relevant drugs), abnormal renal function (serum creatinine ≥110 [micro]mol/L), abnormal electrocardiography (Q wave, arrhythmia, or bundle block), valvular stenosis (any degree), more than mild valvular regurgitation, wall motion abnormalities and pericardial effusion on echocardiographic recordings, Assessment Test Score of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease >20, forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio from pulmonary function test <0.
The echocardiogram revealed severe valvular stenosis due to presence of clots on the mitral valve and restricted motion of the mitral leaflets.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the presence of Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was investigated by polymerase chain reaction in atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic vascular samples taken from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery due to CAD, and from patients undergoing aortic (AVR) and/or mitral valve replacement (MVR) secondary to valvular stenosis.