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a musical form based on the variation of a theme (sometimes two or even three themes) written by the composer or borrowed by him, hence the name “theme with variations,” which is often given to works in this form. The source of variations lies in folk composition, in the alterations that a song form undergoes with the repetition of couplets. The theme of variations is usually simple in manner of execution and is performed at a moderate tempo, which allows the introduction of the successive textural, tempo, and genre changes into the variations. There are variations that maintain the structure of the theme (variations on basso ostinato, on a sustained melody, or strict variations) and those that alter it (free variations). In the first case, the modification affects all or several elements of a theme: the melody, manner of execution, and polyphonic texture; in the separate variations, the harmony, tempo, and measure (Passacaglia in C minor of J. S. Bach, Beethoven’s 32 Variations for Piano, the Persian chorus from Glinka’s opera Ruslan and Liudmila). In the second case, the variations are linked to the theme by general melodic turns but change the genre, measure, tempo, and structure, resulting in a suitelike form (Schumann’s Symphonic Etudes for Piano, the second part of Tchaikovsky’s trio Memories of a Great Artist, the second part of Prokofiev’s Concerto No. 3 for Piano). It is possible to unite both forms of variation (the finale of Shostakovich’s Sonata No. 2 for Piano). Sometimes, as is evident from the examples, the variations form an integral part of a sonata, symphonic cycle, or other musical form.


Protopopov, VI. Variatsionnye protsessy v muzykal’noi forme. Moscow, 1967.
Adigezalova, L. “Variatsionnyi printsip razvitiia pesennykh tem v russkoi sovetskoi simfonicheskoi muzyke.” In the collection Voprosy sovremmenoi muzyki. Leningrad, 1963.
Fischer, K. “Zur Theorie der Variation im 18, und beginnenden 19. Jahrhundert.” In Festschrift J. Schmidt-Görg . … Bonn, 1957.


References in periodicals archive ?
Ballet, character, pointe, partnering, men's classes, variations, hip hop, jazz, modern, tap, musical theater.
75) in the variations on chosen themes, subsequent chapters explore how implied narratives in the song-based "Andante" variations from the early piano sonatas (these first traced by George Bozarth), and modal shifts in Brahms's Lieder inform the variation movements from the op.
The fact that the tests show no short-term effect of water variations should indicate that water characteristics have little effect on green sand properties if the sand in a metalcasting firm's green sand system is replaced rapidly, such as through new sand additions or core sand dilution.
Additionally, these data are stimulating ongoing efforts to develop mouse models of potentially functional polymorphisms; explore the common variant/common disease hypothesis; address the ethical, legal, and social implications of the genetics of environmental disease susceptibility; and develop new tools, views, and strategies to improve the discovery of genetic variations responsible for sensitivity to environmental agents.
Even small variations in viscosity will change the flow distribution in the die and thus alter the sheet profile.
The causes of variation in product performance and manufacturing processes will vary by the type of technology, its maturity, and the experience of the organization and its suppliers.
The genetic variation that most interests Brooks is called a single nucleotide polymorphism, or SNP (pronounced "snip").
Machine Direction (MD) Instability -- A fine paper machine had MD instability that showed up in MD tensile strength orientation (TSO) strips as frequency and fiber angle variation.
We describe an unusual anatomic variation of this canal that to our knowledge has not been previously described in the literature.
In each of these variations, we see different aspects of man-to-man defense that, when properly executed, form the foundation for good team defense.
It is well known that excessive variation in the uncured elasticity of mixed batches can and does lead to downstream quality problems such as dimensional stability problems with extrusion, non-fills in injection molding and physical property variations with continuous vulcanization, to name a few.
Because Americans tend to look down on certain language variations--such as African-American Vernacular English or Appalachian English--the analysis of language variation and its accompanying practices are met with controversy.