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X-ray photography of a vein or veins following intravenous injection of a radiopaque substance.
Recording of venous pulsations.



(1) A method of roentgenographic examination of veins by injection of a contrast medium. Phlebography is used to diagnose varicose veins and other diseases.

(2) Venous sphygmography, a method of studying blood circulation in man and animals by means of graphic registration of the venous pulse, that is, the pulsations of venous walls. The curves obtained are called phlebograms. The external jugular vein is generally used, and the curves are registered on paper, usually by means of a mirror venous sphygmograph. Several types of waves are observed, reflecting the different stages of blood circulation: the cessation of the blood flow from the venae cavae into the right atrium when the atrium contracts, the transmission of pulsation of the carotid artery to the adjacent jugular vein during ventricular systole, and the filling of the right ventricle and large veins with blood during ventricular diastole.

Phlebography is useful in measuring the duration of cardiac phases and the tonus of the right atrium. It is used as a diagnostic tool in such disorders as heart disease and elevated pressure in pulmonary circulation.

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Prospective study of color duplex ultrasonography compared with contrast venography in patients suspected of having deep venous thrombosis of the Upper Extremities.
15] Lee BCP, Vo KD, Kido DK, Mukherjee P, Reichenbach J, Lin W, Yoon MS, Haacke EM, "MR high-resolution blood oxygenation level-dependent venography of occult (low-flow) vascular lesions," AJNR Am J Neuroradiol, 20:1239-1242, 1999.
In addition, older wedged venography techniques required more DSA, as well as a greater number of oblique and lateral projections, which increased dose.
Conventional cerebral angiography is invasive and not commonly used for diagnosing CVT as CT and MR venography are safer diagnostic options.
The most direct and definitive means to confirm the diagnosis of PSS is catheter-directed contrast venography.
Multidetector CT venography of patients with blunt head trauma revealing skull fractures that stretch out to a dural venous sinus or jugular bulb identified DVST in 40.
Such pathologic conditions are generally hard to detect with MR imaging, as they may stand below the spatial resolution of venography sequences.
Systemic-to-pulmonary venous shunt in superior vena cava obstruction: depiction on computed tomography venography," Acta Radiologica, vol.
5) Contrast venography remains the standard for diagnosis of IVC thrombosis with a low false-positive rate and the advantage of access for immediate treatment if required.
Venous thromboembolism: additional diagnostic value and radiation dose of pelvic CT venography in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism.
With the introduction of ultrasound (US) in the 1980s, and the subsequent universal adoption of US as the initial imaging examination of choice for suspected LE or UE DVT, LE venography is almost never done for diagnosis alone, but is used in conjunction with therapeutic procedures, and has occasional use for upper extremity and central thoracic DVT imaging.
5) CT venography has recently been offered as another modality that can help in treatment planning by highlighting the location of an expansile petrous apex granuloma in relation to the jugular bulb and petrous carotid artery.