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The induction in plants of the competence or ripeness to flower by the influence of cold, that is, temperatures below the optimal temperature for growth. Vernalization thus concerns the first of the three phases of flower formation in plants. In the second stage, for which a certain photoperiod frequently is required, flowers are initiated. In the third stage flowers are unfolded. See Flower, Photoperiodism, Plant growth



the reaction of a plant that is in the vegetative state to the effect of low, above-freezing temperatures (2°–10°C) for a certain period of time. Vernalization finds expression in the plant’s unique preparation to form the rudiments of flowers at the growing point. The German botanist J. G. Gassner was the first to study the phenomenon of vernalization (1918).

The phenomenon is characteristic of winter plants and some biennials and perennials. In some plants the formation of the flower rudiments may be an immediate result of vernalization. In many, for example, winter grasses, biennial henbane, and winter rape, flowering after vernalization will only occur during long days. Some plants show a capacity for vernalization at an early age. In winter grasses the reaction is observed during seed germination, and in biennial henbane it occurs after one month.

Vernalization is the result of the adaptation of plants to seasonal changes in climate. The physiological mechanisms of vernalization are probably associated with the formation of the plant hormones involved in inflorescence development.

The term “vernalization” is also used to designate an agricultural procedure by which the seeds of winter crops are exposed to a low, above-freezing temperature before planting so that the plants will blossom when planted in the spring. The technique is used in the selective breeding of plants.



The induction in plants of the competence or ripeness to flower by the influence of cold, that is, at temperatures below the optimal temperature for growth.
References in periodicals archive ?
The strawberry cultivar used both for vernalized (frigo--24 days in cold chamber of 4 [+ or -] 1[degrees]C temperature and 94 [+ or -] 2% relative humidity) (OLIVEIRA et al.
To determine the phyllochron for both vernalized and non-vernalized seedlings, Leaf Number (LN) was counted twice per week, from the beginning of leaf appearance until the second flowering (October for vernalized and September for non-vernalized plants).
2] seeds were imbibed for 48 h at room temperature and vernalized for 8 wk at 4[degrees]C.
However, the heading date of some genotypes was so delayed when unvernalized as compared with vernalized (e.
Two seeds per accession were planted and seedlings were vernalized at 4[degrees]C for 5 wk.
Wheat seeds were vernalized for 7 d at 4[degrees]C then transplanted individually into 10-cm diameter pots filled with a 1:1 peat moss: perlite mix (Sun Grow Horticulture Inc.
During seed harvest, 30 of these nonflowering plants were saved out of an initial 210 stecklings, regrown in the greenhouse, and vernalized for 140 d, then replanted into a greenhouse isolation chamber with a 24-h photoperiod.
Six plants of each vernalized clone were induced to flower with 18 to 20 h of supplemental overhead lighting in the greenhouse.
1] progeny, reciprocals, and their parents were vernalized beginning on 17 Aug.