veto


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veto

[Lat.,=I forbid], power of one functionary (e.g., the president) of a government, or of one member of a group or coalition, to block the operation of laws or agreements passed or entered into by the other functionaries or members.

In the U.S. government, Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution gives the president the power to veto any bill passed by Congress. The president's veto power is limited; it may not be used to oppose constitutional amendments, and it may be overridden by a two-thirds vote of both houses of Congress. In practice, the veto is used rarely by the president (although Franklin D. RooseveltRoosevelt, Franklin Delano
, 1882–1945, 32d President of the United States (1933–45), b. Hyde Park, N.Y. Early Life

Through both his father, James Roosevelt, and his mother, Sara Delano Roosevelt, he came of old, wealthy families.
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 vetoed over 600 bills), and a bill once vetoed is rarely reapproved in the same form by Congress. The pocket veto is based on the constitutional provision that a bill fails to go into operation if it is unsigned by the president and Congress goes out of session within ten days of its passage; the president may effectively veto such a bill by ignoring it. The British crown's technical veto power over acts of Parliament has not been exercised since 1707.

American states have generally given their governors veto power similar to that of the president. In addition, more than 40 states have legislated a line-item veto, which, in varying terms, allows the governor to veto particular provisions of taxing and spending bills. In 1996, Congress passed a law that gave the president a limited ability to kill items in similar federal bills, but it was ruled unconstitutional in 1998.

The second type of veto, by one member of a coalition, has been seen frequently as exercised by one or another member of the United NationsUnited Nations
(UN), international organization established immediately after World War II. It replaced the League of Nations. In 1945, when the UN was founded, there were 51 members; 193 nations are now members of the organization (see table entitled United Nations Members).
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 Security Council; its use within the European UnionEuropean Union
(EU), name given since the ratification (Nov., 1993) of the Treaty of European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, to the European Community (EC), an economic and political confederation of European nations, and other organizations (with the same member nations)
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 is under debate.

Veto

 

in ancient Rome a right exercised by a Roman magistrate (right of intercession) with respect to the decisions and actions of another magistrate. The right of veto of the people’s tribunes was particularly important. In Poland in the 17th century the so-called liberum veto was in effect; complete unanimity was required in the decisions of the sejm.

In bourgeois states the head of state has the right to refuse to put into force a draft law adopted by the legislative organ. The right of veto came into being in monarchical states during the period when a balance of power developed between the executive organ, represented by the monarch, and parliament. Monarchs as a rule had the absolute right of veto, and the imposition of the veto meant that the draft law was entirely discarded and would not be subjected to further examination in parliament. The establishment of parliamentarism in bourgeois countries, the decline in the prestige of monarchist tradition, and the concentration of all power in the hands of the governments brought to an end the practice of the use of the veto by the monarch (in England, for example, a veto was imposed for the last time in 1707) although it is theoretically still retained.

In most of the bourgeois republics of today the right of veto is vested in the head of state—the president. As a rule, it is a deferring veto: in refusing to enforce the draft law (which means, in most cases, the refusal to sign it), the president must refer it back to parliament for further examination. If the draft law is once again adopted by parliament in accordance with the conditions laid down in the constitution, it becomes law without the sanction of the head of state. In a number of countries, including the United States, where the head of state may exercise the right of veto only within a certain time limit, constitutional practice has given rise to the so-called pocket veto: a draft law not signed by the president within a given time limit is considered to have lapsed, if at the expiry of the time limit the houses of parliament are not in session. In the United States from 1945 to 1966 inclusive, the right of veto was used in the case of 192 bills, and Congress was able to overrule the president (that is, pass the bill a second time) in 15 cases in all. Over the same period of time, the pocket veto was used in 207 cases.

In socialist countries, where the right to pass laws is vested in the supreme representative organ (for example, the Supreme Soviet in the USSR), the constitution does not accord the right of veto to the head of state.

In international law, the nonunanimity of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council is sometimes referred to as recourse to a veto.

B. S. KRYLOV

veto

US Government a document containing the reasons why a chief executive has vetoed a measure
References in periodicals archive ?
The protective return arose, at least in part from Bork's brain, as a way to keep alive the possibility of a pocket veto during an intra- or intersession adjournment in the face of adverse court rulings (the Kennedy ruling from the District of Columbia Circuit came in August 1974; Ford's five protective return vetoes came two months later).
Before casting votes, the second-biggest MDP and the ULD agreed to lend support to the GNP in overriding the veto.
So a legislative veto in the regulatory reform bills would sound good to the Republican leadership.
I pointed out in the Washington Post on April 30 that Clinton's veto "blocked political interference with medical judgment, defended the fundamental right of women to reproductive choice, and protected women from riskier alternate medical procedures.
Assuming Obama keeps his veto promise, Republican lawmakers would have to decide whether to drop their demands or let parts of the federal government close for lack of money.
In a prior interview Sunday, Mikov, a member of the Socialist Party, also suggested that the veto vote will be a measure for the parliamentary confidence in cabinet.
Tables summarizing the bill number, title, final passage vote margin, and veto override vote margin for these bills in the House and the Senate are available from the author upon request.
Of course, if the editorial page was on the opposite side of an issue (that is, if Nixon vetoed something they approved of), they would not begin the final paragraph by saying, "The Legislature in September's veto session no doubt will add further insult by trying to override the veto.
In plenary Friday, ruling Bulgarian Socialist Party and Movement for Rights and Freedoms will have to rely on support from nationalists Ataka in order to be able to gain an absolute majority and surmount the veto.
In recent years, discussions have begun regarding the suitability of the veto power, bringing about arguments that the veto power slows down and even prevents important decisions on international peace and security.
Increased number of the elected non-permanent members will tilt the balance away from the permanent members," he said during a discussion on reforming the veto right.
Full-scale negotiations to restructure the Security Council began in the General Assembly in February last year on five key areas - the categories of membership, the question of veto, regional representation, size of an enlarged Security Council, and working methods of the council and its relationship with the 192-member assembly.