viol


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Related to viol: bass viol, Violetta

viol,

family of bowed stringed instruments, the most important ensemble instruments from the 15th to the 17th cent. The viol's early history is indefinite, but it is recognizable in depictions from as early as the 11th cent. During the second half of the 17th cent. it lost its dominant position to the violinviolin,
family of stringed musical instruments having wooden bodies whose backs and fronts are slightly convex, the fronts pierced by two f-hole-shaped resonance holes. The instruments of the violin family have been the dominant bowed instruments because of their versatility,
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 family and became practically extinct until the general revival of interest in early music and instruments in the 20th cent. The viol differs from the violin in the manner of playing, in its shape, and in having frets and typically six strings, tuned in fourths with one third, rather than in fifths. Most viols are properly played upright, resting on or between the knees, with the bow held with the palm upward. The viol usually has sloping shoulders, a flat back, and deeper ribs than the violin. It is a chamber instrument with a soft, sweet tone, incapable of the dynamic extremes and brilliance of the violin; this helps to account for its decline. The viol was built in four principal sizes—treble, alto, tenor, and bass—which were used in ensemble, or "consort." The double-bass viol, or violone, survived all the others, becoming, with some modification, the present double bassdouble bass,
bowed stringed musical instrument, the contrabass of the modern orchestral string section. It originated as a double-bass viol, an instrument described as early as 1566. A true double-bass violin appeared during the 18th cent.
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. The bass viol was the principal solo instrument of the family, possessing a large literature from the 16th to the 18th cent. It later became known as viola da gamba [Ital.,=leg viol]—originally the name of the whole family, to distinguish them from those of the viola da bracchio (arm viol) family, the forerunners of the violin. The viola d'amore, a member of the viol family, originated in the 17th cent. and was especially popular in the 18th cent. It has from five to seven strings, tuned in thirds and fourths, and an equal number of sympathetic strings running through the bridge and under the fingerboard. Unlike most viols, it is held, like the violin, under the chin. It was and is principally a solo instrument, possessing a modest literature from all periods, including the 20th cent.

viol

any of a family of stringed musical instruments that preceded the violin family, consisting of a fretted fingerboard, a body rather like that of a violin but having a flat back and six strings, played with a curved bow. They are held between the knees when played and have a quiet yet penetrating tone; they were much played, esp in consorts, in the 16th and 17th centuries
References in periodicals archive ?
Le viol ou la menace du viol sont egalement utilises pour exacerber la terreur lors des attaques et transmettre sciemment le VlH.
A Certified Public Accountant, Viol received a bachelor of arts degree in biology from the University of Virginia.
The IRS disallowed them, arguing that the viol was a work of art that would only increase in value and therefore was not depreciable.
La peine devient capitale si le kidnapping est accompagne de viol.
Fantasia-Suites for Three & Four Viols and Organ.
Performers are all Gateshead Music Service teachers, and include Naomi Barker, Eileen Evans, Penny Callow, John Treherne and John Finnon, master of the viols.
Le viol est repandu et il se produit au niveau de tous les groupes sociaux et ethniques.
The former Coventry University fine art MA course leader is showing six digitally-montaged images - Viol Bodies (above) - at Regent Studios in Leamington.
They are entitled to the type of tunes they prefer; however, please, either keep the volume down or your sun roofs and windows closed as a service to the general public who are not appreciative of ``noise in the night'' - the overpowering sound of a bass viol and the pounding of a base drum, between which there is no orchestral sound to the accompanying thunder.
I myself found especially fascinating the reconstruction of the musical activities for the wedding of Giangaleazzo and Isabella d'Aragona (306-18), which may have occasioned the composition and performance of Josquin Desprez's settings of Virgilian texts (here the Merkleys might have cited Oliver Strunk's article in The Musical Quarterly for 1930); the reconstruction of the musical elements of the Festa del Paradiso (419-21); and the brief account of music (422-23) in the households of Beatrice d'Este Sforza (Ludovico's wife) and Isabella d'Argona Sforza (Giangaleazzo's wife), with its tantalizing references to the lutenist and composer Andrea Cossa, to Beatrice's playing of the "Clavicordo," and to viol players and the singing of three-part songs for soprano, tenor, and contrabasso.
Tries for Haverfordwest fell to wing Robert Viol and full-back Graham Badham.
In two recent Tax Court cases, three professional musicians were allowed to depreciate antique bows and a 17th century bass viol, respectively.