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1. Physics a body with finite mass that can be treated as having negligible size, and internal structure
3. RC Church a small piece broken off from the Host at Mass


See elementary particles.



a member of a lexical-grammatical class of words that express the attitude of the speaker toward an utterance and that may be used to produce certain grammatical forms. An auxiliary part of speech, the particle is not a sentence part.

Particles exist in many languages, and the Slavic languages have a rather extensive system. In Russian, particles are divided into several semantic-functional types. Syntactic particles are used in the formation of the subjunctive, imperative, and optative moods (by, pust’, da, davai, davaite). Negative particles include tie and ni. Subjective modal particles modify the sense of other words or entire sentences; they include intensive particles (ved’, dazhe, -to, zhe), emphatic particles (toi’ko, lish’), interrogative particles (razve, neuzheli, li), and exclamatory particles (kak, chto zd). Particles are also used as affixes in the formation of pronouns and adverbs (koe-, -libo, -nibud’, -to).


Grammatika sovremennogo russkogo literaturnogo iazyka. Moscow, 1970.
Vinogradov, V. V. Russkii iazyk, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1972.



(particle physics)
Any very small part of matter, such as a molecule, atom, or electron. Also known as fundamental particle.
Any relatively small subdivision of matter, ranging in diameter from a few angstroms (as with gas molecules) to a few millimeters (as with large raindrops).
References in periodicals archive ?
Viral particles may be shed up to 48 hours after recovery from symptoms (8,19), and infection may be asymptomatic (28).
However, even if silicone nanowires were introduced, there would remain the issue of passengers exhaling a particle that can be linked directly to the pathogen, such as viral particles.
The more viral particles you're exposed to, that typically translates into a greater chance of infection.
In an HIV patient on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HRT), drugs suppress viral replication, which means they keep the number of viral particles in a patient's bloodstream very low.
The vaccine contains viral particles from strains that cause up to 80 percent of norovirus infections, Bernstein estimated.
The empty viral particles, their use, and the processes by which they are made, are the subject of a new patent filing.
The RDV method comprises 6 procedures: 1) effective destruction of cellular RNA and DNA for semipurification of viral particles, 2) effective elimination of DNA fragments by using a pre filtration column system and elution of small amounts of RNA, 3) effective synthesis of first- and second-strand cDNAs, 4) construction and amplification of a eDNA library, 5) construction of a second eDNA library, and 6) direct sequencing using optimized primers.
This release kills the cell, and also yields a pool of new viral particles capable of infecting additional cells within the tumor.
The ubiquitous H1N1 and H3N2 flu strains, for example, use the protein hemagglutinin (H) to bind to matching sialic acid receptors on the surface of a cell before penetrating it, and then use the enzyme neuraminidase (N) to cleave or split these sialic acids when viral particles are ready to exit and spread the infection.
The patent describes a medical device that incorporates an affinity lectin to reduce the presence of envelope viruses and viral particles from blood or blood plasma.
Multifunctional particles, modelled on viral particles such as the flu and HIV, are being researched and developed to carry signal-generating sub-molecules and drugs, able to reach target areas through a safe sprinkling of tiny mNPs and external magnetic forces, creating a medical means to confirm specific ailments and automatically release healing drugs while inside a living system.
Nevertheless, since EM and PCR cannot discriminate between infectious and noninfectious virus particles or nucleic acids, they are not satisfactory when an evaluation of the infectious capacity of viral particles is required.