vocational guidance


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vocational guidance:

see guidance and counselingguidance and counseling,
concept that institutions, especially schools, should promote the efficient and happy lives of individuals by helping them adjust to social realities.
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Vocational Guidance

 

a system of scientifically based measures that help young people choose a vocation, while taking into account individual aptitudes and the needs of the national economy. The system of vocational guidance also helps young people find suitable jobs.

In the USSR and in other socialist countries, vocational guidance is part of the system of communist upbringing and a means of rationally distributing manpower resources. It promotes the development of the individual and reveals his potentialities and intensifies the process of training.

In the USSR, work in vocational guidance began as early as the 1920’s. Within the system of the People’s Commissariat of Labor of the RSFSR, vocational consultation bureaus were organized in Leningrad, Sverdlovsk, Briansk, Kiev, and Yaroslavl, and an Interdepartmental Coordinating Council for Vocational Recruitment and Consultation was established, as were specialized laboratories and offices.

Vocational guidance familiarizes young people with the branches of the national economy, types of vocational training, the national economy’s needs, and job opportunities. It also helps define vocational aims and provides direct assistance in the selection of a vocation and job placement. The most important function of vocational guidance is to interest young people in particular types of work. Vocational selection and adaptation are closely related to vocational guidance.

Vocational guidance conforms to the republic and oblast systems for admitting secondary-school students to vocational-technical schools and to higher and specialized secondary educational institutions. The leading role in the vocational guidance of students is played by the secondary general-education school, whose curriculum includes vocational guidance.

The curriculum also includes basic subjects, polytechnic subjects, and manual training.

Interscholastic vocational training centers give vocational guidance to students in the higher grades, provide basic training in the chosen vocations, and acquaint students with the work performed in industry. These centers—established by the executive committees of city and raion soviets of people’s deputies and with the participation of industrial and agricultural enterprises and state and cooperative organizations—are under the authority of the public education agencies. Students visit industrial enterprises and educational establishments, and individual and group vocational consultations and meetings are held with representatives of various occupations. Studies are made of schoolchildren by means of observations, polls, and questionnaires.

Schools are aided in the work of vocational guidance by industry and by vocational-technical, specialized secondary, and higher educational institutions, through open-house days, clubs, and competitions. Also assisting in the work of vocational guidance are specialized establishments, usually existing within the public education system, job-placement commissions for young people, and commissions within the executive committees of soviets of people’s deputies that deal with the affairs of minors. The work of vocational guidance is further aided by public organizations, radio, television, and the press. Materials are published on the theory and practice of vocational guidance. The work of vocational guidance is directed by agencies of public education and vocational-technical education and by agencies concerned with the utilization of manpower resources. Interdepartmental councils on vocational guidance function in the republics, krais, oblasts, cities, and raions.

The theory and practice of vocational guidance have also developed extensively in other socialist countries.

In the major capitalist countries, vocational guidance concerns itself with the economic and social distribution of the work force in the interests of developing capitalist production and ideological influence on young people. Vocational-guidance facilities in general-education schools conduct studies using a number of methods, including tests, to determine the vocational aptitudes of adolescents. Students are acquainted with various occupations, the labor market, and opportunities for vocational training. Employment and vocational guidance offices are in charge of this work and provide group and individual consultation for students. Vocational counselors receive training in specialized courses and educational institutions. As a rule, the work of vocational guidance is directed by the ministries or departments of labor. Various occupations are described and classified, and regularly published materials provide information about available jobs and long-range employment prospects and advice on suitable positions.

IU. P. AVERICHEV

References in periodicals archive ?
Johnson & Dinnall, 2009: 7) Kagan and Havemann define vocational guidance as "the technique of helping a person selects the right lifetime occupation, often through test of attitudes and interests.
In October 1993, the Shanghai Graduates Vocational Guidance Center (SGVGC) was established.
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A review of literature in the Czech and English languages indicates that the profession of counseling in the Czech Republic throughout most of the 20th century was provided as either marriage counseling or vocational guidance.
In this line, Muller (2001) carried out a long and thorough elaboration on the conditions necessary to optimize Vocational Guidance processes, working within an operative clinical concept.
One intriguing aspect of the vocational guidance proponents was their critique of middle-class women's sexual ignorance.
Sections 3 and 4 describe the main features of vocational guidance provision in schools in Britain, and consider the the main points of contrast between British and Continental practice.
The main goal of vocational guidance work carried out by the Employment Center of the Morgaus district is to provide the population with information about the labor market, the content and prospects for the development of the profession market, the needs of the city and the district for qualified personnel, and to provide advice in choosing (changing) profile of professional training.
Counseling and vocational guidance are a theoretical and practical approach, generated by the social pressures imposed by the industrial development at the turn of the 20th century; this resulted in a change of the relationship between supply and demand of jobs, in an increasing the expectations regarding the level of the graduates' skills, in a diversification of the concerns for improving the quality of life of current and future generations.
Muscat, Oct 11 (ONA) A seminarorganized by the Ministry of Manpower under the theme " Planning for the Vocational Guidance Policy and Labor Market Information' startedat the College of Tourism today under the auspices of Dr.
They discussed the Qualitative Training Council's upcoming plans, initiatives to implement joint programmes with the Ministry, coordination between the two parties for the success of these development programmes, the constant quest to bring modern programmes in order to keep pace with the exerted efforts to promote a culture of vocational guidance directed at job seekers who want to work in the industrial sector in the Kingdom and encourage them to engage in this vital sector, and invest in the suitable and diverse jobs provided because of its developmental role in the advancement the of the national economy.

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