vomiting

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vomiting,

ejection of food and other matter from the stomach through the mouth, often preceded by nauseanausea,
sensation of discomfort, or queasiness, in the stomach. It may be caused by irritation of the stomach by food or drugs, unpleasant odors, overeating, fright, or psychological stress. It is usually relieved by vomiting.
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. The process is initiated by stimulation of the vomiting center of the brain by nerve impulses from the gastrointestinal tract or other part of the body. The vomiting center then sends out nerve impulses that precipitate spasmodic muscular contractions of the stomach wall and downward spasms of the diaphragm. The pressure generated then forces up the contents of the stomach. The vomiting mechanism may be in response to local irritation (diseases or disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, overburdening of the capacity and digestive capabilities of the stomach, ingestion of harmful foods or substances) or result from a metabolic disturbance (as in pregnancy) or from disorders or stimulation of the nervous system (e.g., migraine, motion sickness, infectious disease, brain tumor or injury, disagreeable odors). Vomiting may also be a reflex action to other spasmodic conditions (whooping cough, gagging).

Vomiting

 

a complex reflex action, during which the stomach contents are involuntarily expulsed through the mouth as a result of the excitation of the vomiting center, located in the medulla oblongata.

During vomiting, the pylorus undergoes a spasm and the cardia of the stomach opens. As a result of antiperistaltic contractions, food travels from the stomach to the esophagus and is expulsed to the outside by the spasmodic and jerky contraction of the respiratory musculature and muscles of the anterior abdominal wall. At the same time, the larynx rises and the epiglottis falls, which causes the glottis to close, thus preventing the vomit from entering the respiratory tract. The vomit is hindered from entering the nasal cavity by the raised soft palate.

Vomiting may be provoked by irritants acting on gastric mucosa, by the direct effect of toxins on the vomiting center, and by the stimulation of receptors, for example, in diseases of the abdominal organs, the brain, and meninges. Psychogenic and conditioned-reflex vomiting is also possible.

Vomiting is generally a defensive act because it helps remove harmful substances from the stomach. However, frequent vomiting, for example, the indomitable vomiting that occurs during pyloristenosis, may result in dehydration and disturbances of mineral metabolism and acid-base equilibrium.

Vomiting is dangerous during alcoholic intoxication and coma and when a patient is recovering from general anesthesia; atony of the epiglottis and soft palate may permit vomit to enter the nasal cavity and upper respiratory tract, which can cause asphyxia.

Vomiting is a specific symptom of many pathological conditions in such animals as carnivores, omnivores, and ruminants.

V. A. FROLOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy in an evolutionary perspective.
The leading concerns of American women with nausea and vomiting of pregnancy calling Motherisk NVP Helpline.
With more than 28 years' experience managing more than 750,000 high-risk pregnancies as part of services like our Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy Program, and with a nationwide network of OB nurse specialists available 24/7, we are experts in developing solutions that improve maternal health," stated Gregg Raybuck, President, Alere Health.
This combination was widely used as an effective treatment for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) in the United States and Canada in the 1960s and 1970s, and was marketed as Bendectin.
In a recently published metaanalysis of studies on ginger's use as an antiemetic during pregnancy, the authors concluded that the herbal supplement may be safe and effective for managing the nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP).
6]) is recommended as a first-line therapy for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (ACOG Practice Bulletin no.
Diclectin used for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy does not appear to affect the later neurocognitive development of children who are exposed to the drug in utero, Irena Nulman, M.
PrimaBella[TM] Provides Safe and Effective Treatment for Expectant Mothers Experiencing Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy
Interestingly, women also use these agents to reduce reflux symptoms to lessen nausea and vomiting of pregnancy.
In a recently published metaanalysis of studies on ginger's use as an antiemetic during pregnancy published last month, the authors concluded that the cumulative experience suggests that the herbal supplement may be safe and effective for managing the nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP).
Although dietary modifications can be effective, pharmacologic therapy for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy may be needed.