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ejection of food and other matter from the stomach through the mouth, often preceded by nauseanausea,
sensation of discomfort, or queasiness, in the stomach. It may be caused by irritation of the stomach by food or drugs, unpleasant odors, overeating, fright, or psychological stress. It is usually relieved by vomiting.
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. The process is initiated by stimulation of the vomiting center of the brain by nerve impulses from the gastrointestinal tract or other part of the body. The vomiting center then sends out nerve impulses that precipitate spasmodic muscular contractions of the stomach wall and downward spasms of the diaphragm. The pressure generated then forces up the contents of the stomach. The vomiting mechanism may be in response to local irritation (diseases or disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, overburdening of the capacity and digestive capabilities of the stomach, ingestion of harmful foods or substances) or result from a metabolic disturbance (as in pregnancy) or from disorders or stimulation of the nervous system (e.g., migraine, motion sickness, infectious disease, brain tumor or injury, disagreeable odors). Vomiting may also be a reflex action to other spasmodic conditions (whooping cough, gagging).



a complex reflex action, during which the stomach contents are involuntarily expulsed through the mouth as a result of the excitation of the vomiting center, located in the medulla oblongata.

During vomiting, the pylorus undergoes a spasm and the cardia of the stomach opens. As a result of antiperistaltic contractions, food travels from the stomach to the esophagus and is expulsed to the outside by the spasmodic and jerky contraction of the respiratory musculature and muscles of the anterior abdominal wall. At the same time, the larynx rises and the epiglottis falls, which causes the glottis to close, thus preventing the vomit from entering the respiratory tract. The vomit is hindered from entering the nasal cavity by the raised soft palate.

Vomiting may be provoked by irritants acting on gastric mucosa, by the direct effect of toxins on the vomiting center, and by the stimulation of receptors, for example, in diseases of the abdominal organs, the brain, and meninges. Psychogenic and conditioned-reflex vomiting is also possible.

Vomiting is generally a defensive act because it helps remove harmful substances from the stomach. However, frequent vomiting, for example, the indomitable vomiting that occurs during pyloristenosis, may result in dehydration and disturbances of mineral metabolism and acid-base equilibrium.

Vomiting is dangerous during alcoholic intoxication and coma and when a patient is recovering from general anesthesia; atony of the epiglottis and soft palate may permit vomit to enter the nasal cavity and upper respiratory tract, which can cause asphyxia.

Vomiting is a specific symptom of many pathological conditions in such animals as carnivores, omnivores, and ruminants.


References in periodicals archive ?
In some cases, vomiting purges the body of toxins, but in other cases vomitus contains only food.
4) Since a focus of the assessment is to determine if the nausea and vomiting are due to the pregnancy or some other cause, the patient should be questioned about the onset, timing, severity, aggravating and alleviating factors, and appearance of the vomitus, as this can help to rule out causes other than pregnancy.
Also, inducing vomiting is not without risk of potential complications, such as aspiration of vomitus, which could lead to the development of pneumonia.
The obstruction may be caused by unconsciousness and loss of motor tone with the tongue blocking the airway; facial fractures; blood, vomitus, or other foreign material in the airway; increased pressure on the airway structures as from a neck hematoma; or airway wall edema from burns or smoke inhalation.
Consider surgical causes, especially if blood or bile is present in vomitus or stool
Aspiration of vomitus can be a dangerous result of too much alcohol.
If any secretions or vomitus are present, remove them via suction.
Researchers there were studying contagion dynamics of norovirus, an illness which causes uncontrollable vomiting and is primarily spread by "aerosolized vomitus," aka puke spray.
None of them exhibited vomitus during the post-operative period except one dog of group B which was then given Maxolon (Metoclopramide Hydrochloride, SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals (Pvt) Limited) intravenously twice a day before feeding.
six from well, three from borehole, four from sachet, two from stream, one from tap, and four disinfectant solutions), 5 stool samples, 5 vomitus samples (from some patients among the 171).
In December 2007, he had again the adynamia, anorexia, vomitus, diarrhea, fever, shills, sweating, dyspnea and orthopnea.
The eggs are passed in the faeces or may be shed in vomitus.