is evident above 2 km AGL, as indicated by the appearance of tightly coupled vortices rotating about the central axis clearly visible between 2 and 4 km AGL.
This cavitation results in vortex breakdown
near the orifice and generation of very fine bubbles.
Some Observations of the Vortex Breakdown Phenomenon, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, volume 14, 585-592, (1962).
On Stationary and Traveling Vortex Breakdown, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, volume 45, 545-559, (1971).
The phenomena are very complex as many physical, time and chemical scales are involved, therefore turbulent combustion instabilities multiscale 4D problems (space and time), like vortex breakdown
and vortex precessing core [3, 4], appear.
Downward moving wind and temperature anomalies associated with rapid vortex breakdown
appear to influence the Jet Streams and project strongly onto the AO.