Volcanology

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volcanology

[‚väl·kə′näl·ə·jē]
(geology)
The branch of geology that deals with volcanism.

Volcanology

 

a division of dynamic geology. It deals with the processes and reasons for the formation of volcanoes, their development, the structure and composition of the products of eruption (lava, gases, and so on), the principles of the distribution of volcanoes on the earth’s surface, and changes in the character of their activity with time. The practical goal of volcanology is the development of methods of forecasting eruptions and of using volcanic heating of water for industrial and other national purposes. In solving theoretical and practical problems volcanology uses data from geology, geotectonics, geophysics, geochemistry, physical chemistry, and petrology. In these sciences volcanology participates in the solution of general theoretical questions of geology: the sources of volcanic energy, the conditions of evolution of magma, the distribution of the magmatic deep and intermediate foci, and the role of volcanic activity in forming the earth’s crust.

The first information about volcanology dates to the middle of the first millennium B.C. (Heraclitus in the sixth century and Aristotle in the fourth century in Greece and Strabo in the first century B.C.-first century A.D. and Pliny the Younger in the first century A.D. in Rome). Strabo described an eruption of the volcano Kaimeni (Thera), which took place in 196 B.C., and Pliny described the catastrophic eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. 79, which he witnessed. In 1842 a special scientific institution—a volcanological observatory built on the slope of Vesuvius—was organized. Its founding was the beginning of multifaceted research into volcanic activity. A volcanic observatory was founded in 1911 on the volcano Kilauea in Hawaii. After that there appeared an observatory in Indonesia and a whole series of observatories and stations in Japan.

In the USSR volcanology was developed by the scientists F. Iu. Levinson-Lessing, A. N. Zavaritskii, and V. I. Vlodavets. Volcanological institutions were founded in 1935 on Kamchatka. The laboratory of volcanology that had been established in Moscow in 1945 was reorganized into the Institute of Volcanology (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski!) in 1962. In addition to these institutions, volcanological research is carried on by the volcanology laboratory of the Sakhalin Integrated Research Institute, as well as by the geological institutes of Armenia, Georgia, and other republics. The research of Soviet volcanologists occupies a prominent place in the International Association of Volcanologists.

Observations and research in volcanology are published in the special publications of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR Biulleten’ Vulkanologicheskoi stantsii: AN SSSR (Bulletin of the Volcanological Station: Academy of Sciences of the USSR; since 1937), and Trudy Instituta vulkanologii (Transactions of the Institute of Volcanology; since 1940). Among the international editions, the journal Zeitschrift fur Vulkanologie, with supplements, was published between 1914 and 1938; Bulletin volcanologique, the organ of the International Association of Volcanologists, has been published since 1924; and Bulletin of the Volcanological Society of Japan has been published since 1932.

REFERENCES

Zavaritskii, A. N. “Nachalo russkoi vulkanologii.” In Iubileinyi sbornik, posviashchennyi tridtsatiletiiu Velikoi Oktiabr’skoi sotsialisticheskoi revoliutsii, part 2. Moscow-Leningrad, 1947.
Meniailov, A. A. “Vulkanologiia.” In Razvitie nauk o Zemle v SSSR. Moscow, 1967.
Macdonald, G. A. “Volcanology.” Science, 1961, vol. 133, no. 3,454, pp. 673-79.
Vlodavets, V. I. “Achievements of Modern Geological Volcanology and Its Trends.” Earth-Science Reviews, 1966, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 181-97.

V. I. VLODAVETS

References in periodicals archive ?
One vulcanologist advising the United Nations said the authorities had had no choice but to close their airspace because of the lack of hard facts about aircraft behaviour in volcanic ash.
Vulcanologist Dr Dougal Jerram, of Durham University's Department of Earth and Sciences, said: "Ash can cause serious health problems but the high altitude of the current plume above the UK means that it is air traffic and not humans on the ground that will suffer.
Stanley Williams, a vulcanologist at Arizona State University, said that McGonigle's efforts will be successful, because having carbon dioxide as well as sulfur dioxide data will make volcano predictions easier.
About 600 people have been evacuated in eastern Indonesia after a volcano began spewing ash, a vulcanologist said.
The volcano has been venting steam and ash for weeks, but Thursday's burst was the largest yet, sending billowing, dark grey clouds over miles down the mountain, said a government vulcanologist.
One of the eruptions sent a dark cloud of debris and ash almost four kilometres down the mountain's western flank, said Ratdomopurbo, the region's chief vulcanologist.
In 1767 the great collector and vulcanologist Sir William Hamilton designed an 'apparatus' to depict an eruption of Vesuvius, This remarkable combination of moving pictures with light and sound effects was perhaps the closest the eighteenth century came to the cinema.
1991: Eminent vulcanologist Harry Olichen, killed when a volcano unexpectedly erupted.
Vulcanologist Giuseppe Longo, of Naples University, said: "This is one of the most beautiful eruptions in recent years.
Teasing out footnote facts can be fun, but talking via email to a retired vulcanologist about the possible effects of the Thera eruption on his fictional character Tanuwati brings the past alive and makes it vibrant.
Volcanic tremors have been detected repeatedly since Saturday's eruption, with underground water boiling into steam and breaking or moving rocks, a vulcanologist at the meteorological agency said.
And vulcanologist Dr Dougal Jerram, from Durham University, warned that the last Eyjafjallajokull eruption in the 1820s went on for about two years.