candidiasis

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candidiasis

(kăn'dĭdī`əsĭs), infection caused by fungi of the genus Candida; also called moniliasis after a former name of the genus. The most common forms of candidiasis, caused by C. albicans, are infections of the mucous membranes of the mouth (also known as thrushthrush,
in medicine, infection caused by the fungus Candida albicans, manifested by white, slightly raised patches on the mucous membrane of the tongue, mouth, and throat. The mucous membrane beneath the patches is usually raw and bleeding.
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) and of the vagina and often the vulva (also known as yeast infection). The fungus C. albicans is a normal inhabitant of the mouth and vagina, and its growth is usually kept in check by certain bacteria that also live in these areas. When the balance of these organisms is disturbed by antibiotic treatment, by hormonal imbalances, or by a weakening of the body's resistance to disease (as occurs in AIDSAIDS
or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,
fatal disease caused by a rapidly mutating retrovirus that attacks the immune system and leaves the victim vulnerable to infections, malignancies, and neurological disorders. It was first recognized as a disease in 1981.
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), the fungus can begin to proliferate. Candidiasis of the penis (usually traceable to a female with the infection) is called balanitis. Candidal infections are most often treated topically with antifungal drugs such as clotrimazole, nystatin and miconazole, but oral or intravenous antifungal drugs are prescribed when the infection does not respond to topical treatments. Invasive candidiasis, a more serious infection, occurs most commonly when Candida fungi invade the bloodstream. Hospital and nursing home patients, such as those with a central venous catheter, in an intensive care unit, with weakened immune system, or taking broad-spectrum antibiotics, are most likely to develop invasive candidiasis. Antifungal medications may be prescribed prophylactically to patients who are likely to develop invasive candidiasis. An invasive infection is typically treated by an echinocandin administered intravenously. Among the other species of Candida that cause candidiasis is C. auris, an often multidrug-resistant species first identified in Japan in 2009; it can cause bloodstream, wound, and ear infections.

Candidiasis

 

(also, blastodendriosis or candidosis), a disease caused by yeastlike fungi of the genus Candida. These fungi, which are widely distributed in nature, thrive on seeds, vegetables, and fruits (particularly those that are rotten). Under certain conditions, they become pathogens and cause superficial diseases of the skin (which usually run a mild course) or infections of the mucous membranes. The fungi can also cause deep infections, even in the internal organs. In particular, confectioners, workers in the fruit and vegetable industry, and employees of bath and shower facilities are exposed to candidiasis. Infection occurs through contact with someone carrying the disease or with objects that have been contaminated by the fungi.

Superficial candidiasis is primarily localized in cutaneous folds, including interdigital spaces (particularly between the fingers). The fungi cause red exzemalike lesions of various sizes, with white flaking epidermis along the edges. Candidiasis of the mucous membranes is manifested as thrush, or mycotic stomatitis. Thrush is characterized by the formation of a white, readily removed film on the mucous membranes of the oral cavity and cracks in the corners of the mouth that heal with difficulty and frequently recur. Infection of female sexual organs is accompanied by itching and leukorrhea. The disease frequently appears on nails and cuticles. Sometimes candidiasis becomes chronic and generalized. Of the internal organs, candidiasis most often infects the gastrointestinal tract (esophagitis, gastritis, enteritis, and colitis), the respiratory organs (bronchitis, pneumonia, pleuropneumonia that sometimes resemble tuberculous infiltrates), and the urinary system. Treatment of the disease includes local disinfection and the application of antiphlogistics. Antifungal antibiotics, such as nystatin or levorin, and vitamins B2, PP, B6, and C are also prescribed. Prevention can be accomplished by eliminating the conditions allowing the fungi to grow.

A. L. MASHKILLEISON

Candidiasis in animals. Infections occur in domestic fowl, cattle, swine, sheep, and dogs (usually occurring in the young). Sick animals are the source of infection. Damage resulting from candidiasis is significant, particularly if care and feeding is poor. The incubation period is 3–15 days; the most usual clinical sign is the formation of white deposits on mucous membranes. The most frequent form of the disease in animals is intestinal, causing diarrhea. For young animals the disease is acute, causing plague in 3–8 days; it is a chronic disease for adults. In cattle, candidiasis usually is manifested as mastitis. Laboratory work is crucially important in the diagnosis of the disease in animals. Treatment is successful only in minor cases (using iodine, preparations and certain antibiotics). Preventive measures include the isolation of infected animals and disinfection.

candidiasis

[‚kan·də′dī·ə·səs]
(medicine)
A fungus infection of the skin, lungs, mucous membranes, and viscera of humans caused by a species of Candida, usually C. albicans. Also known as moniliasis.
References in periodicals archive ?
The primary endpoint for the study will be the prevention of acute episodes of vulvovaginal candidiasis through week 48 of the study, which extends either 24 or 36 weeks beyond the conclusion of dosing with VT-1161 depending on the dose group.
The objective of the current in vivo study was to provide comparative data of the single-dose regimen of fluconazole versus the single-day dosage of itraconazole in vulvovaginal candidiasis.
3 There are variety of local and systemic antimycotic agents available for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis.
These probiotic strains also increased the cure rate in women with bacterial vaginosis or vulvovaginal candidiasis, when given as an adjunct to conventional therapy.
21) Vulvovaginal candidiasis The NuSwab [SM] VG assay discerns C albicans and C glabrata, the species that constitute 93% to 97% of Candida species.
The investigators enrolled almost 500 women whose acute symptomatic vulvovaginal candidiasis was preceded by a recurrent history of the infection.
In a primary-care study, (4) vulvovaginal symptoms including vaginal discharge were due to vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) in 27% of patients, bacterial vaginosis (BV) in 21%, trichomoniasis in 8%, Chlamydia trachomah's in 2%, Neisseria gonorrhea (GC) in 1%, and no infection in 34%.
The fact that women with vulvovaginal candidiasis are not susceptible to other forms of candidiasis led researchers to suspect a local immune phenomenon, said Dr.
NovaDigm will present Phase 1 safety and immunogenicity data for the vaccine, as well as preclinical data in a model of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC).
20 October 2011 - Canadian MethylGene Inc (TSE:MYG) said on Tuesday it had obtained US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for its Investigational New Drug (IND) application to begin a Phase II study of MGCD290, its oral Hos2 fungal inhibitor, in patients with acute vulvovaginal candidiasis (AVVC).
Healthcare supplier Perrigo Company (Nasdaq:PRGO) (Nasdaq:TASE) said on Friday that the company has filed an Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for butoconazole nitrate vaginal cream, 2%, for the local treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis (infections cause by Candida).