waste

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waste:

see solid wastesolid waste,
discarded materials other than fluids. In the United States in 1996, nearly 210 million tons—about 4.3 lb. (2 kg) per person daily (up from 2.7 lb./1.2 kg in 1960)—were collected and disposed of by municipalities.
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Waste

 

(in industry), any material that is left over from the production process. Wastes include materials with a wide range of compositions and physicochemical properties. Examples are such by-products as ore fines, cuttings, and turnings; inert substances that are separated from minerals and fuels during enrichment; and ashes and slags that are formed during the combustion of fuels. The amount of waste depends on the production technology used, the quality of the starting materials, the dimensions of the material, and the way in which the production processes are coordinated.

Progress in engineering has sharply reduced quantities of waste; furthermore, a significant portion of industrial waste is

Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents used by capitalist countries
 StructurePhysiological classificationChemical behavior
1The structure of a representative compound is shown
Tabun ................Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents usedNerve agentUnstable
Sarin..............Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents usedNerve agentUnstable
Soman...............Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents usedNerve agentStable
Phosphorylthiocholines1 ....Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents usedNerve agentStable
Hydrogen cyanide...........HCNGeneral poisonUnstable
Cyanogen chloride............ClCNGenera l poisonUnstable
Phosgene..............OCCl2Choking agentUnstable
Mustard gas...............S(CH2CH2Cl)2Choking agent, vesicantStable
Trichlorotriethylamine .........N(CH2CH2Cl)3Choking agent, vesicantStable
Lewisite.........Cl2AsCH=CHClChoking agent, vesicantStable
Chloroacetophenone.......Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents usedLacrimator, irritantFuming, unstable
o-Chlorobenzalmalononitrile.Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents usedLacrimator, sternutator, irritantFuming, unstable
Chloropicrin.............Cl3CNO2Choking agent, lacrimator, irritantUnstable
Adamsite...............Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents usedSternutator, irritantFuming, unstable
Lysergic acid diethylamide ...Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents usedPsychotomimeticUnstable
Quinuclidine ester of diphenyl-oxyacetic acid.................Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents usedPscychotomimeticUnstable

used as a raw material for producing by-products. A decrease in the quantities of waste and the reuse of waste significantly reduces the consumption of raw materials and supplies. Production costs are lowered, while production efficiency is raised. In the USSR and elsewhere new technologies are being devised, while the existing production processes are being improved in order to maximize the reduction in the quantities of waste and, where possible, to completely eliminate waste.

Closed-loop recycling is one new development. The quantities of waste in the form of waste water and industrial air pollution have been sharply reduced, particularly in the chemical, metallurgical, and petroleum-refining and processing industries as well as in the coal, pulp, and paper industries. Another method of waste reduction is the creation of industrial complexes in which one plant utilizes the waste products of another plant as raw materials. Such measures are means of conserving natural resources as well as of improving the quality of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and soil. In the USSR the reduction or utilization of waste are part of the plan for the supply of raw materials and for the development of industrial production. Incentives in the form of bonuses for workers serve to encourage the practice of collecting, storing, and shipping wastes in many branches of industry.

A. I. IMSHENETSKII


Waste

 

by-products created in the processing of textile fibers. In Soviet industry, waste is classified as visible or invisible. Visible waste includes selvage waste—processed fiber that has emerged as waste from the spinning of semifinished articles and is returned for reprocessing; reworkable waste—soiled fiber, noils, and waste from opening machines that can be used in spinning after it is loosened and cleaned; wadded material, used to make wadding; and unusable waste. Invisible waste results from the removal of moisture from the raw material and the dispersion of fiber particles. Waste is undesirable because it reduces production output and increases the prime cost of production.

waste

[wāst]
(engineering)
Rubbish from a building.
Dirty water from mining, industrial, and domestic use.
The amount of excavated material exceeding fill.
(mining engineering)
The barren rock in a mine.
The refuse from ore dressing and smelting plants.
The fine coal made in mining and preparing coal for market.

waste

1. The discharge from any fixture, appliance, area, or appurtenance which contains no fecal matter.
3. Waste material such as garbage, refuse, rubbish, and trash.

waste

1. a land or region that is devastated or ruined
2. a land or region that is wild or uncultivated
3. Physiol
a. the useless products of metabolism
b. indigestible food residue
4. disintegrated rock material resulting from erosion
5. Law reduction in the value of an estate caused by act or neglect, esp by a life-tenant
References in periodicals archive ?
With slight adjustments for wastage rates, these give the distribution percentages of school population as 77.
Vaccine wastage assessment after introduction of open vial policy in Surat Municipal Corporation area of India.
The large quantities of water, fertiliser and land used to produce it along with the fuel burnt amounts to a significant wastage of resources that are depleting and considered to be scarce.
All of us--farmers and fishers; food processors and supermarkets; local and national governments; individual consumers--must make changes at every link of the human food chain to prevent food wastage from happening in the first place, and re-use or recycle it when we can't," said FAO Director-General Jose Graziano da Silva.
Per capita food wastage in North America and Europe is around 95-115 kilogram per year.
Those patients with the three-month supply also showed nominal wastage and more cost savings, the study said.
The initiative marks the introduction of novel ideas that can help preserve food for longer, thus helping in minimizing wastage and maximizing value.
As correctly pointed out by Ian McNicholas (Letters, July 5), such wastage shows the "contempt Welsh ministers have for budget control".
In an attempt to contain pharmacy costs, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) allows states the discretion to set all-inclusive quantity limits applicable to all medications as a tool for controlling potential medication wastage and cost (Smith, 2009).
Muscat: In tandem with the global initiatives to curb wastage of food, Esma Karim Al Balushi, a student from the Department of Natural Resource Economics at Sultan Qaboos University (SQU), has identified several reasons for wastage at the household level in Oman and suggested solutions for it.
The news will come as no surprise to water experts, who insist that tariffs must rise to curb wastage in the Emirates.
Sainsbury's should also be commended for tackling wastage head-on.