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see solid wastesolid waste,
discarded materials other than fluids. In the United States in 1996, nearly 210 million tons—about 4.3 lb. (2 kg) per person daily (up from 2.7 lb./1.2 kg in 1960)—were collected and disposed of by municipalities.
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(in industry), any material that is left over from the production process. Wastes include materials with a wide range of compositions and physicochemical properties. Examples are such by-products as ore fines, cuttings, and turnings; inert substances that are separated from minerals and fuels during enrichment; and ashes and slags that are formed during the combustion of fuels. The amount of waste depends on the production technology used, the quality of the starting materials, the dimensions of the material, and the way in which the production processes are coordinated.

Progress in engineering has sharply reduced quantities of waste; furthermore, a significant portion of industrial waste is

Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents used by capitalist countries
 StructurePhysiological classificationChemical behavior
1The structure of a representative compound is shown
Tabun ................Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents usedNerve agentUnstable
Sarin..............Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents usedNerve agentUnstable
Soman...............Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents usedNerve agentStable
Phosphorylthiocholines1 ....Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents usedNerve agentStable
Hydrogen cyanide...........HCNGeneral poisonUnstable
Cyanogen chloride............ClCNGenera l poisonUnstable
Phosgene..............OCCl2Choking agentUnstable
Mustard gas...............S(CH2CH2Cl)2Choking agent, vesicantStable
Trichlorotriethylamine .........N(CH2CH2Cl)3Choking agent, vesicantStable
Lewisite.........Cl2AsCH=CHClChoking agent, vesicantStable
Chloroacetophenone.......Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents usedLacrimator, irritantFuming, unstable
o-Chlorobenzalmalononitrile.Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents usedLacrimator, sternutator, irritantFuming, unstable
Chloropicrin.............Cl3CNO2Choking agent, lacrimator, irritantUnstable
Adamsite...............Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents usedSternutator, irritantFuming, unstable
Lysergic acid diethylamide ...Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents usedPsychotomimeticUnstable
Quinuclidine ester of diphenyl-oxyacetic acid.................Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents usedPscychotomimeticUnstable

used as a raw material for producing by-products. A decrease in the quantities of waste and the reuse of waste significantly reduces the consumption of raw materials and supplies. Production costs are lowered, while production efficiency is raised. In the USSR and elsewhere new technologies are being devised, while the existing production processes are being improved in order to maximize the reduction in the quantities of waste and, where possible, to completely eliminate waste.

Closed-loop recycling is one new development. The quantities of waste in the form of waste water and industrial air pollution have been sharply reduced, particularly in the chemical, metallurgical, and petroleum-refining and processing industries as well as in the coal, pulp, and paper industries. Another method of waste reduction is the creation of industrial complexes in which one plant utilizes the waste products of another plant as raw materials. Such measures are means of conserving natural resources as well as of improving the quality of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and soil. In the USSR the reduction or utilization of waste are part of the plan for the supply of raw materials and for the development of industrial production. Incentives in the form of bonuses for workers serve to encourage the practice of collecting, storing, and shipping wastes in many branches of industry.




by-products created in the processing of textile fibers. In Soviet industry, waste is classified as visible or invisible. Visible waste includes selvage waste—processed fiber that has emerged as waste from the spinning of semifinished articles and is returned for reprocessing; reworkable waste—soiled fiber, noils, and waste from opening machines that can be used in spinning after it is loosened and cleaned; wadded material, used to make wadding; and unusable waste. Invisible waste results from the removal of moisture from the raw material and the dispersion of fiber particles. Waste is undesirable because it reduces production output and increases the prime cost of production.


Rubbish from a building.
Dirty water from mining, industrial, and domestic use.
The amount of excavated material exceeding fill.
(mining engineering)
The barren rock in a mine.
The refuse from ore dressing and smelting plants.
The fine coal made in mining and preparing coal for market.


1. The discharge from any fixture, appliance, area, or appurtenance which contains no fecal matter.
3. Waste material such as garbage, refuse, rubbish, and trash.


1. a land or region that is devastated or ruined
2. a land or region that is wild or uncultivated
3. Physiol
a. the useless products of metabolism
b. indigestible food residue
4. disintegrated rock material resulting from erosion
5. Law reduction in the value of an estate caused by act or neglect, esp by a life-tenant
References in periodicals archive ?
HVS-R/E Hospitality Waste Management Systems also provides access to a wide variety of waste disposal and recycling equipment at discounted competitive pricing, and assists in regulatory reporting to helps to ensure legal compliance (thus avoiding fines and penalties) and minimize environmental impact.
With public sentiment, legislation, and environmental consciousness all moving in the right direction, we remain confident that EPTC's Closed -- loop Waste Management System -- with its ability to turn an agricultural cost center into an environmental and energy benefit -- is a solution whose time has come.
She explained that Bulgaria had negotiated BGN 560 M in EU funding for the construction of waste management systems under the operational program Environment 2014-2020.
Recently enacted legislation at the federal, state, and local levels is having a favorable impact on the market for EPTC's Closed-Loop Waste Management Systems," said Mears.
The Closed Loop Waste Management System was designed by EPTC to be one of the solutions to the type of pollution caused by animal feeding and raising operations.
a yard waste management system (food waste, compostable paper, yard trimmings
EPTC's Closed Loop Waste Management System separates animal or food wastes, solids and liquid, which are processed into a nutrient-rich soil amendment, agricultural water and energy generated from methane.
The Company's Closed-loop Waste Management System separates animal or food wastes into solids and liquid which are processed into a nutrient-rich soil amendment, reusable water and energy generated from methane.
Procurement Cluj County Council with Funding Sop Implements Priority Axis 2 Development of Integrated Waste Management Systems and Rehabilitation of Historically Contaminated Sites, the Project Integrated Waste Management System in Cluj County.
This letter is in response to your request for clarification of legislative intent in including, in Part I of House Bill 515, an exemption from the swine farm moratorium for "an innovative waste management system that does not employ an anaerobic lagoon and that has been approved by the Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources.
Fitch Ratings assigns a 'AA-' rating to Prince George's County, MD's approximately $31 million solid waste management system refunding revenue bonds, series 2003.
Contract notice: Within the framework of a contract for the regional waste management system.

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