waste

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waste:

see solid wastesolid waste,
discarded materials other than fluids. In the United States in 1996, nearly 210 million tons—about 4.3 lb. (2 kg) per person daily (up from 2.7 lb./1.2 kg in 1960)—were collected and disposed of by municipalities.
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Waste

 

(in industry), any material that is left over from the production process. Wastes include materials with a wide range of compositions and physicochemical properties. Examples are such by-products as ore fines, cuttings, and turnings; inert substances that are separated from minerals and fuels during enrichment; and ashes and slags that are formed during the combustion of fuels. The amount of waste depends on the production technology used, the quality of the starting materials, the dimensions of the material, and the way in which the production processes are coordinated.

Progress in engineering has sharply reduced quantities of waste; furthermore, a significant portion of industrial waste is

Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents used by capitalist countries
 StructurePhysiological classificationChemical behavior
1The structure of a representative compound is shown
Tabun ................Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents usedNerve agentUnstable
Sarin..............Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents usedNerve agentUnstable
Soman...............Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents usedNerve agentStable
Phosphorylthiocholines1 ....Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents usedNerve agentStable
Hydrogen cyanide...........HCNGeneral poisonUnstable
Cyanogen chloride............ClCNGenera l poisonUnstable
Phosgene..............OCCl2Choking agentUnstable
Mustard gas...............S(CH2CH2Cl)2Choking agent, vesicantStable
Trichlorotriethylamine .........N(CH2CH2Cl)3Choking agent, vesicantStable
Lewisite.........Cl2AsCH=CHClChoking agent, vesicantStable
Chloroacetophenone.......Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents usedLacrimator, irritantFuming, unstable
o-Chlorobenzalmalononitrile.Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents usedLacrimator, sternutator, irritantFuming, unstable
Chloropicrin.............Cl3CNO2Choking agent, lacrimator, irritantUnstable
Adamsite...............Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents usedSternutator, irritantFuming, unstable
Lysergic acid diethylamide ...Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents usedPsychotomimeticUnstable
Quinuclidine ester of diphenyl-oxyacetic acid.................Table 1. Toxic chemical warfare agents usedPscychotomimeticUnstable

used as a raw material for producing by-products. A decrease in the quantities of waste and the reuse of waste significantly reduces the consumption of raw materials and supplies. Production costs are lowered, while production efficiency is raised. In the USSR and elsewhere new technologies are being devised, while the existing production processes are being improved in order to maximize the reduction in the quantities of waste and, where possible, to completely eliminate waste.

Closed-loop recycling is one new development. The quantities of waste in the form of waste water and industrial air pollution have been sharply reduced, particularly in the chemical, metallurgical, and petroleum-refining and processing industries as well as in the coal, pulp, and paper industries. Another method of waste reduction is the creation of industrial complexes in which one plant utilizes the waste products of another plant as raw materials. Such measures are means of conserving natural resources as well as of improving the quality of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and soil. In the USSR the reduction or utilization of waste are part of the plan for the supply of raw materials and for the development of industrial production. Incentives in the form of bonuses for workers serve to encourage the practice of collecting, storing, and shipping wastes in many branches of industry.

A. I. IMSHENETSKII


Waste

 

by-products created in the processing of textile fibers. In Soviet industry, waste is classified as visible or invisible. Visible waste includes selvage waste—processed fiber that has emerged as waste from the spinning of semifinished articles and is returned for reprocessing; reworkable waste—soiled fiber, noils, and waste from opening machines that can be used in spinning after it is loosened and cleaned; wadded material, used to make wadding; and unusable waste. Invisible waste results from the removal of moisture from the raw material and the dispersion of fiber particles. Waste is undesirable because it reduces production output and increases the prime cost of production.

waste

[wāst]
(engineering)
Rubbish from a building.
Dirty water from mining, industrial, and domestic use.
The amount of excavated material exceeding fill.
(mining engineering)
The barren rock in a mine.
The refuse from ore dressing and smelting plants.
The fine coal made in mining and preparing coal for market.

waste

1. The discharge from any fixture, appliance, area, or appurtenance which contains no fecal matter.
3. Waste material such as garbage, refuse, rubbish, and trash.

waste

1. a land or region that is devastated or ruined
2. a land or region that is wild or uncultivated
3. Physiol
a. the useless products of metabolism
b. indigestible food residue
4. disintegrated rock material resulting from erosion
5. Law reduction in the value of an estate caused by act or neglect, esp by a life-tenant
References in periodicals archive ?
I would argue that Spong, far from taking the mystery out of faith, has tried to fathom the mystery of divine/human interaction, the divine being defined as one's inherited potential "to love wastefully," as he puts it.
The motor and pump stop during idle portions of the cycle, rather than wastefully pumping oil over a relief valve back to the tank.
His ecological sensibilities include the conviction that materials such as stone, wood and metal are wastefully expensive; and he is proud of the fact that the Chiat/Day scheme conformed to a low budget and was on time.
The fact that we have so much water on hand does not mean that people should use it wastefully," cautioned DeBenedictis.
On the wall are eight sinks, all their faucets wide open; the water runs torrentially, noisily, wastefully.
Rather than wastefully duplicating it, UNE-P providers are deploying new, valuable technologies that are more cost-effective, and our customers are the real winners.
48 mins: Jake Forster-Caskey hits a neat back-heel to set-up Jesse Lingard who wastefully fires wide with the goal at his mercy.
Williams should have hit the target for Swindon 15 minutes from time when he wastefully headed wide from a Roberts cross.
Chester's response was impressive and, after Iain Howard fired wastefully wide, the recalled Nathan Jarman equalised in the 30th minute when he took a pass from Antoni Sarcevic and rifled home.
They have lots of views on things that have been done wastefully.
Southend's Jean-Francois Christophe wastefully headed over Moussa's free-kick in first-half stoppage-time.
And although Cook has not dismissed the prospect of a similar arrival next month, he said City would not be throwing their money around wastefully.