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see paperpaper,
thin, flat sheet or tissue made usually from plant fiber but also from rags and other fibrous materials. It is used principally for printing and writing on but has many other applications. The term also includes various types of paperboard, such as cardboard and wallboard.
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a picture in a piece of paper, visible when the paper is held up to the light; it is formed during the process of making the paper.

Watermarks began to appear in Europe in the 13th century, and in Russia in the second half of the 17th century. The study of watermarks and the determination of the exact place and time of the making of a piece of paper are very important for the correct interpretation of a source.

Since 1723, Russia, following the example of other European countries, impressed watermarks on stamped paper (a depiction of the state coat of arms and the words“stamped paper”) in order to avoid counterfeiting of official documents and currency. Watermarks are usually made on paper at precise intervals, or they cover the whole field of the paper in the form of a repeated drawing or pattern. They can be used to distinguish genuine money, valuable papers and documents, and stamps from counterfeit items. Watermarks are also used as a means of ornamenting paper. The imprinting of watermarks is usually done with a dandy roll or with cylinders of a cylinder paper-making machine on a wet web of the paper.



(graphic arts)
A localized modification of the structure and opacity of a sheet of paper so that a pattern or design can be seen when the sheet is held to the light.
References in periodicals archive ?
These existed algorithms are also provided copyright protection to multiple watermarks but applied on one type of watermark information either image or biometrics.
In this proposed algorithm, Gaussian measurement matrix A is applied to the DCT coefficients of watermark image to get CS measurements of watermark image.
Highest frequency coefficients are selected from these blocks modify them according to watermark.
DFT based embedding involves direct watermark embedding and template based embedding.
We compute the bitwise exclusive-OR of the copyright watermark [W.
The secure data can be embedded as a watermark within medical images, which can be extracted only by the authorized parties.
To make the preview commercially worthless, the content could be stamped with a visible watermark very difficult to remove in an automated way.
This allows the watermark to be embedded without being perceived by the human eye.
If a scheme gracefully allows multiple watermark insertions into an object without damage to either the image or the individual marks, it may allow the owner to establish a hierarchical distribution and tracing scheme.
In the SVD domain, a common approach is to modify the singular values by the singular values of a visual watermark.
Today, most developed countries also watermark their paper currencies and postage stamps to make forgery more difficult.