Coastal Hazards and Storm Surge Assessment and Mitigation (CHASSAM) which was targeted to be completed by December 2014, generates wave surge, wave refraction
, and coastal circulation models to understand and recommend solutions for coastal erosion.
The emergence of gravity arises from the unique coupling of quantum theory to the 3-space, which determines the 'gravitational' acceleration of quantum matter as a quantum wave refraction
Usually, these processes are studied numerically taking into account a real bathymetry of the basin, wave refraction
, wave diffraction, nonlinearity, and breaking processes.
Moulin and Flor  used three-dimensional ray-tracing of interactions between large-scale internal waves and a Rankine-type vortex having a Gaussian vertical distribution of vertical vorticity and found relatively weak vortices caused wave refraction while relatively strong vortices trapped some waves in the rotating motion of the vortex.
Per Equation 8, [partial derivative]U/[partial derivative]x is the only divergence term affecting any wave refraction for these interactions with the dipole jet.
Investigations on sediment drift based on empirical relationship developed from quantitative estimates of littoral flows through wave refraction studies and field and laboratory experiments on the nature of movement of sediment in the vicinity of natural barriers have been made along various coastlines of the world (Inman et.
2001) have discussed about the wave refraction pattern and its role in the redistribution of sediments along the east coast of India.
The Moho bounce and wave refraction
caused extra-strong waves to focus on a region between the two cities measuring 10 km wide by 15 km long, according to Lomax and Bolt.
Gravity is now explainable as a emergent phenomenon of quantum foam dynamics, but only if we use as well a quantum wave description of matter--gravitational attraction is a quantum matter wave refraction
effect, and also causes EM wave refraction
A quantum wave packet propagation analysis of (5) gives the acceleration induced by wave refraction to be 
This shows that (i) the matter 'gravitational' geodesic is a quantum wave refraction effect, with the trajectory determined by a Fermat maximised proper-time principle, and (ii) that quantum systems undergo a local time dilation effect.
In particular these equations showed that the phenomenon of gravity is a wave refraction
effect, for both EM waves and quantum matter waves [12, 13].