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According to the weld quality standard ISO 5817, welded joints may be classified by reinforcement as welds in level C or D [8].
The FSW process has been used to produce a full thickness, single-pass welds in 0.
The residual stresses were measured only for the PC welds because this is the only material studied that had a published procedure for solvent-residual stress measurements (10).
Protective gas used in laser welding should provide the protection of weld in the welding area from external factors, shape the weld and protect laser optics from metal fumes.
Linear friction welding is effective on parts with complex geometry and resins that are difficult to weld with ultrasonics.
The 275-employee company also manufactures structural piling and is even qualified produce linepipe to arctic specifications with weld metal Charpy requirements to 500 [degrees] F.
There is a difference between the molten pool formation location due to the arc alone in TIG-YAG hybrid welding and YAG-TIG hybrid welding but, in both cases, when the YAG laser was irradiated onto the moltenpool, easily formed by the action of the arc alone, a deep penetration could be formed, except that all the welds were not fully penetrated welds [25].
For hybrid welds increasing the energy ratio of laser to arc can narrow the weld width, reduce the tendency of grain growth and modify the microstructure of fusion zone.
The Internal Weld Scanning Tool, developed by UK-based company Optical Metrology Services Limited (OMS), is an innovative system that internally scans welds inside pipes -- both visually and dimensionally -- enabling engineers to quickly and confidently assess the quality of the root weld.
A key component of the system is a patented closed-loop control that allows the system to monitor the weld joint in real time and modify the process to accommodate a joint mismatch.