white-collar crime

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white-collar crime,

term coined by Edward Sutherland for nonviolent crimes committed by corporations or individuals such as office workers or sales personnel (see white-collar workerswhite-collar workers,
broad occupational grouping of workers engaged in nonmanual labor; frequently contrasted with blue-collar (manual) employees. American in origin, the term has close analogues in other industrial countries.
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) in the course of their business activities. White-collar crimes include embezzlement, false advertising, bribery, unfair competition, tax evasion, and unfair labor practices.

white-collar crime

‘a crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation’. This is the definition which Edwin H. Sutherland gave in his book which started systematic sociological interest in this area: White-collar Crime (1949). Sutherland argues that criminal behaviour is not confined to working-class people. It is frequently, even routinely, found among people of high social status and respectability, but white-collar crimes are rarely treated as such.

Sutherland's focus was on crimes committed by managers and others in the course of their occupations, though the usage has often been broadened to include other areas of middle-class crime. In a study of 70 US corporations Sutherland found a large number of crimes including fraud, misrepresentation, infringe-ments of patents, and others. Much of his evidence did not come from criminal statistics but from the investigations of independent commissions, because very few of the offenders had been prosecuted. Even though the total amounts of money lost to companies, banks, etc., runs into many millions of pounds, it is still the case that white-collar crimes are very much under-represented in the CRIMINAL STATISTICS and are not stigmatized in the way that violent crimes or thefts from individuals are. The importance of Sutherland's work is in correcting common assumptions about the distribution of crime and in qualifying some arguments which have linked crime exclusively to deprivation.

References in periodicals archive ?
The cost of white-collar crime is thus frequently (and radically) underestimated, both because it is inherently non-violent and because the price tags attached to some economic crimes are so staggering that they are difficult to comprehend.
I want to work on behalf of people who are victimized by white-collar crime or public corruption, the crimes that take money right out of the pockets of hardworking people,'' Mr.
If the justice system continues to fail to deliver justice when tackling white-collar crime, it has serious implications for our democracy.
The group promotes increased awareness of the impact of white-collar crime on society through dedicated research.
The first four steps are: The architect of the white-collar crime makes an entry into a corporation and is given an authoritative position.
If the ICC were to focus on white-collar crime in Africa, there is a good argument that this would be a lot more useful than international development assistance flows.
In addition, he makes no moral distinction between the disturbing violence so often predicated of street crime and what many perceive to be the less violent and socially threatening tactics of white-collar crime, a conclusion that cannot be made often enough given the wildly disproportionate class and racial demographics of the prison population.
Hay & Kilner can draw on a wealth of experience in complex Health and Safety Executive prosecutions and white-collar crime.
CCJS director Richard Garside said: "If the real scale of cost and impact of white-collar crime on its victims was properly documented it would raise big questions about the willingness and ability of the state to protect the population from serious harms.
Her Maryland colleague Prof David Weisburd (a great name for a professor) is also an expert in white-collar crime.
Hawala is not necessarily synonymous with money laundering or even white-collar crime or terrorism financing.
and international universities with a strong reputation for white-collar crime research.