For example, the definitions based on zonal-mean zonal winds at 60[degrees]N yield no major warmings during most of the 1990s, when other definitions, including one based on zonal-mean zonal wind reversal at 65[degrees]N, show two to five major SSWs during that decade (Fig.
2013), we consider the frequency of major SSWs using the zonal-mean zonal wind reversal definition at a particular latitude (Fig.
minor warmings) are essentially equivalent to the impacts of a complete wind reversal.
2010) that indicate an increased major SSW frequency in future climate using the zonal-mean zonal wind reversal criteria, though this result appears to be model dependent (Mitchell et al.
The well-known diurnal wind reversal in mountain valleys is associated with the development of the thermally induced valley breeze system with up-slope breeze during day-time and down-slope breeze during night-time (Wagner, 1938; Defant, 1951; Flohn, 1969; Freytag, 1987; Vergeiner & Dreiseitl, 1987).
The diurnal wind reversal is associated with the development of the thermally induced valley breeze system with up-slope breeze during the day and down-slope breeze during the night.
ENSO, with its extreme phases of EN and LN, is superimposed on rainfall variability due to the regional forcing of the valley breeze system and the local forcing of wind reversal or locally enhanced convection.