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(in film editing) an effect causing the transition from one scene to the next in which the image of the first scene appears to be wiped off the screen by that of the second



a method of montage transition in a motion picture from one image to another, in which in the course of several frames the image of the following frame gradually replaces (displaces) the image of the preceding one.

Figure 1. Successive displacement of images in four frames: (a) the use of the mask in the first exposure, (b) the use of the countermask in the second exposure, (c) final form. Sequence of frames is from top to bottom.

A wipe is usually obtained through frame-by-frame filming or by an optical print with the use of a mask or countermask. During the initial exposure of the film, the mask, covering one (small) part of the frame and leaving the other (big) part uncovered, gradually (frame by frame) covers the entire frame in the required direction (see Figure 1). Then the frames exposed through the mask are rewound. A counter-

Figure 2. Varieties of masks. Arrows indicate directions in which mask covers frames; broken lines indicate intermediate positions.

mask on which the clear and opaque spaces are the reverse of what they are on the mask is set up, replacing the mask, and a second exposure is made of another image in the same direction and on the same frames. As a result, the completed image is obtained. In frame-by-frame filming the position of the mask and countermask is changed according to previously made marks, which makes it possible to obtain wipes of a highly complicated form (see Figure 2). In an optical printer wipes are obtained by countertyping from intermediate positives. In this case an image of successive positions of the mask and countermask are photographed beforehand on contrast movie film, and with the aid of this film the wipe effect is obtained.



(1) To completely erase data from memory (RAM) or a storage device (hard disk, SSD). See file wipe.

(2) A digital video effect that places one image over another. Although there are a myriad varieties, the classic wipe is a scene transition where the next scene slides horizontally or vertically over the current one. Another common wipe is the circle wipe. A small circle that contains another scene starts to grow in the middle of the current frame and gradually fills the entire frame.
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