working dog


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working dog,

classification used by breeders and kennel clubs to designate dogs raised by humans to herd cattle and sheep, as draft animals, as message dispatchers in wartime, in police and rescue work, as guardians of persons and property, or as guides (see guide dogguide dog,
a dog trained to lead a blind person. The first school for training such dogs was established by the German government after World War I for the benefit of blinded veterans.
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) for the blind. The following breeds are designated working dogs by the American Kennel Club: Alaskan malamuteAlaskan malamute
, breed of strong, compact working dog believed to be one of the oldest arctic sled dogs. It stands about 23 in. (58.2 cm) high at the shoulder and weighs from 70 to 85 lb (31.75–38.5 kg).
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, Belgian MalinoisBelgian Malinois
, a breed of medium-sized working dog developed in Belgium at the turn of the 20th cent. It stands from 22 to 26 in. (55.9–66 cm) high at the shoulder and weighs from 50 to 60 lb (22.6–27.2 kg).
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, Belgian sheepdogBelgian sheepdog,
sometimes called Groenendael, breed of sturdy working dog developed from a wide assortment of sheepherding dogs in Belgium in the early 20th cent. It stands from 22 to 26 in. (55.9–66 cm) high at the shoulder and weighs from 50 to 60 lb (22.6–27.
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, Belgian TervurenBelgian Tervuren
, breed of medium-sized working dog perfected in Belgium in the early 20th cent. It stands from 22 to 26 in. (55.9–66 cm) high at the shoulder and weighs from 50 to 60 lb (22.6–27.2 kg).
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, Bernese mountain dogBernese mountain dog
, breed of sturdy working dog first brought to Switzerland by the invading Roman armies over two millennia ago. It stands from 23 to 27 in. (58–69 cm) high at the shoulder and weighs from 50 to 70 lb (23–32 kg).
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, Bouvier des FlandresBouvier des Flandres
, breed of powerful working dog perfected in Belgium around the beginning of the 20th cent. It stands from 23 to 28 in. (58–71 cm) high at the shoulder and weighs from 60 to 70 lb (27–32 kg).
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, boxerboxer,
breed of medium-sized, muscular working dog perfected in Germany in the 19th cent. but whose origins may be traced back in Europe to the 16th cent. It stands from 21 to 25 in. (53.3–63.5 cm) high at the shoulder and weighs from 60 to 75 lb (27.2–34 kg).
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, BriardBriard
, breed of muscular, wiry working dog whose origins may be traced back to 12th-century France. It stands from 22 to 27 in. (55.9–68.6 cm) high at the shoulder and weighs between 70 and 80 lb (31.8–36.3 kg).
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, bull mastiffbull mastiff
, breed of powerful working dog developed in England in the second half of the 19th cent. It stands from 24 to 27 in. (61–68.6 cm) high at the shoulder and weighs from 100 to 130 lb (45.4–59 kg).
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, Cardigan Welsh corgiCardigan Welsh corgi,
breed of short, long-bodied working dog believed to have been introduced into Wales from Central Europe c.1200 B.C. It stands about 12 in. (30.5 cm) high at the shoulder and weighs from 15 to 25 lb (6.8–11.3 kg).
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, colliecollie,
breed of large, agile working dog developed in Scotland during the 17th and 18th cent. It stands from 22 to 26 in. (55.9–66 cm) high at the shoulder and weighs from 50 to 75 lb (22.7–34 kg).
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, Doberman pinscherDoberman pinscher
, breed of large, compact working dog originating in Germany c.1890. It stands from 24 to 28 in. (61–71 cm) high at the shoulder and weighs from 60 to 75 lb (27–34 kg).
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, German shepherdGerman shepherd,
breed of large, muscular working dog perfected in Germany at the turn of the 20th cent. It stands about 25 in. (64 cm) high at the shoulder and weighs from 60 to 85 lb (27.2–38.5 kg).
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, Great DaneGreat Dane,
breed of very large, powerful working dog developed in Europe more than 400 years ago. It may stand as high as 36 in. (91.4 cm) at the shoulder and weigh up to 150 lb (68.1 kg).
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, Great PyreneesGreat Pyrenees,
breed of large working dog whose fossil remains date its existence in Europe from the Bronze Age (1800–1000 B.C.). It stands from 25 to 32 in. (63.5–81.3 cm) high at the shoulder and weighs from 90 to 125 lb (40.8–56.7 kg).
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, komondorkomondor
(pl. komondorok), breed of large, powerful working dog recognized as a distinct breed in Hungary since the 9th cent. It stands from 23 1-2 to 31 1-2 in. (60–80 cm) high at the shoulder and weighs from 75 to 90 lb (34.0–40.8 kg).
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, kuvaszkuvasz
(pl. kuvaszok) , breed of powerful working dog perfected in Hungary over many centuries. The kuvasz may stand as high as 30 in. (76 cm) at the shoulder and weigh up to 120 lb (54 kg).
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, mastiffmastiff
, breed of very large, powerful working dog developed in England more than 2,000 years ago. It stands from 27 to 33 in. (68.6–83.8 cm) high at the shoulder and weighs from 165 to 185 lb (74.9–83.9 kg).
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, NewfoundlandNewfoundland,
breed of massive, powerful working dog developed in Newfoundland, probably in the 17th cent., and later perfected in England. It stands from 25 to 28 in. (63.5–71.1 cm) high at the shoulder and weighs from 110 to 150 lb (49.9–68.1 kg).
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, old English sheepdogold English sheepdog,
breed of large, wiry working dog developed in England in the early 19th cent. It stands from 21 to 25 in. (53.3–63.5 cm) high at the shoulder and weighs from 55 to 65 lb (24.9–29.5 kg).
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, Pembroke Welsh corgiPembroke Welsh corgi,
breed of short-legged, hardy working dog thought to have been introduced into South Wales by Flemish immigrants in the early 12th cent. It stands from 10 to 12 in. (25.4–30.5 cm) high at the shoulder and weighs from 18 to 24 lb (8.2–10.9 kg).
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, pulipuli
(pl. pulik), a breed of wiry, medium-sized working dog developed nearly 1,000 years ago in Hungary. It stands from 16 to 18 in. (40.6–45.7 cm) high at the shoulder and weighs from 25 to 35 lb (11.3–15.9 kg).
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, RottweilerRottweiler
, breed of sturdy working dog developed from a Roman cattle dog introduced into S Germany more than 1,900 years ago. It stands from 21 3-4 to 27 in. (55.3–68.6 cm) high at the shoulder and weighs from 75 to 90 lb (34.0–40.8 kg).
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, SamoyedSamoyed
, breed of hardy, muscular working dog developed in N Siberia many centuries ago. It stands from 19 to 23.5 in. (48.3–59.7 cm) high at the shoulder and weighs from 35 to 65 lb (15.9–29.5 kg).
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, schnauzerschnauzer
, a sturdy, wirehaired dog developed in S Germany. There are three separate breeds of schnauzer distinguished by their size. The standard schnauzer is a medium-sized dog whose existence in Germany dates back to the 15th cent. It stands from 17 to 20 in. (43.1–50.
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 (giant and standard), Shetland sheepdogShetland sheepdog,
breed of small, agile working dog perfected in the Shetland Islands in the 19th cent. It stands from 13 to 16 in. (33.0–40.6 cm) high at the shoulder and weighs about 15 lb (7 kg).
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, Siberian huskySiberian husky,
breed of medium-sized, muscular working dog whose origins date back thousands of years in Siberia. It stands from 20 to 23 1-2 in. (50.8–59.7 cm) high at the shoulder and weighs from 35 to 60 lb (15.9–27.2 kg).
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, and St. BernardSaint Bernard,
breed of massive working dog developed in Switzerland in the 18th cent. and perfected by British breeders during the 19th cent. It stands from 25 to 29 in. (64–74 cm) high at the shoulder and weighs from 140 to 170 lb (64–77 kg).
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. See dogdog,
carnivorous, domesticated wolf (Canis lupus familiaris) of the family Canidae, to which the jackal and fox also belong. The family Canidae is sometimes referred to as the dog family, and its characteristics, e.g.
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.

Working Dog

 

one of a group of breeds of domesticated dogs of different origins used to herd animals, to draw vehicles, to guard and protect property, and to perform police work and other tasks. Working dogs have a well-developed instinct for protecting the person and property of their master. The great majority are vicious, distrustful of strangers, and easily trained.

Herding dogs are used primarily on livestock-breeding farms to herd flocks and protect sheep, cattle, swine, reindeer, and Japanese deer against predators. Sled dogs are used in teams as a means of transportation in the Far North. The average load that can be drawn by a dog is 40–50 kg, and a team can travel as fast as 15 km per hour. Watchdogs and guard dogs are used to protect state borders and military, industrial, and household property, to locate criminals, to search for minerals (as part of geological prospecting teams), and to perform special services for the army relating to field medicine, communications, and mine detection.

Working dogs include such sheep dogs as the collie, the Hungarian-bred komondor, kuvasz, puli, and pumi, the Slovakian čuvač, the Polish-bred podgal, the Yugoslavian herder, the German-bred Hovawart, the Old English Sheepdog, the Belgian-bred Groenendael, Tervueren, and Malinois, and the French-bred Beauçeron and Briard. Other working dogs include the northeastern laika, Airedale terrier, Doberman pinscher, Rottweiler, giant schnauzer, St. Bernard, Newfoundland, mastiff, Moscow watchdog, and the boxer, bulldog, and other mastifflike dogs. Large and vicious mongrels can also be used as working dogs after special training. There are approximately 100 breeds of working dogs, more than 20 of which are bred in the USSR.

REFERENCES

Mazover, A. P. Plemennoe delo v sluzhebnom sobakovodstve. Moscow, 1960.
Posobie po sobakovodstvu, 2nd ed. Leningrad, 1973.

A. P. MAZOVER

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