ytterbium


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ytterbium

(ĭtûr`bēəm) [for Ytterby, a town in Sweden], metallic chemical element; symbol Yb; at. no. 70; at. wt. 173.054; m.p. 819°C;; b.p. about 1,194°C;; sp. gr. about 7.0; valence +2 or +3. Ytterbium is a soft, malleable, ductile, lustrous silver-white metal. Although it is one of the rare-earth metalsrare-earth metals,
in chemistry, group of metals including those of the lanthanide series and actinide series and usually yttrium, sometimes scandium and thorium, and rarely zirconium. Promethium, which is not found in nature, is not usually considered a rare-earth metal.
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 of the lanthanide serieslanthanide series,
a series of metallic elements, included in the rare-earth metals, in Group 3 of the periodic table. Members of the series are often called lanthanides, although lanthanum (atomic number 57) is not always considered a member of the series.
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 in Group 3 of the periodic tableperiodic table,
chart of the elements arranged according to the periodic law discovered by Dmitri I. Mendeleev and revised by Henry G. J. Moseley. In the periodic table the elements are arranged in columns and rows according to increasing atomic number (see the table entitled
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, in some of its chemical and physical properties it more closely resembles calcium, strontium, and barium. It exhibits allotropyallotropy
[Gr.,=other form]. A chemical element is said to exhibit allotropy when it occurs in two or more forms in the same physical state; the forms are called allotropes.
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; at room temperature a face-centered cubic crystalline form is stable. The metal tarnishes slowly in air and reacts slowly with water but rapidly dissolves in mineral acids. It forms numerous compounds, some of which are yellow or green. The oxide (ytterbia, Yb2O3) is colorless. It is widely distributed in a number of minerals, e.g., gadolinite, and is recovered from monazite but has no commercial uses. Its discovery is credited to J. C. G. de Marignac, who in 1878 separated a substance he called ytterbia. In 1907, Georges Urbain showed that this substance contained lutetium in addition to ytterbium. At about this same time C. A. von Welsbach independently discovered ytterbium and called it aldebaranium.

ytterbium

[i′tər·bē·əm]
(chemistry)
A rare-earth metal of the yttrium subgroup, symbol Yb, atomic number 70, atomic weight 173.04; lustrous, malleable, soluble in dilute acids and liquid ammonia, reacts slowly with water; melts at 824°C, boils at 1427°C; used in chemical research, lasers, garnet doping, and x-ray tubes.

ytterbium

a soft malleable silvery element of the lanthanide series of metals that occurs in monazite and is used to improve the mechanical properties of steel. Symbol: Yb; atomic no.: 70; atomic wt.: 173.04; valency: 2 or 3; relative density: 6.903 (alpha), 6.966 (beta); melting pt.: 819?C; boiling pt.: 1196?C
References in periodicals archive ?
But the new ytterbium clocks can achieve that same result in about one second of averaging time.
3 ppm (g/t) and Ytterbium (Yb) with grades up to 31.
Physiological responses of Carassius auratus to ytterbium exposure.
This is likely inaccurately depicted since the Nd:YAG is produced with yttrium, and not ytterbium.
This information will be of primary interest to chemical researchers and engineers who wish to know more about charge transfers and critical temperatures for ytterbium, calcium and other components of graphite compounds.
Names as unpronounceable as sauropods will hover in the air as he sinks into sleep: praseodymium, dysprosium, rhenium, ytterbium, and then all of the unnamed, coded elements beyond the 100s, unununium (111), ununbium (112), ununquadium (114).
IPG Laser GmbH will deliver the 63-kilowatt Ytterbium fiber laser system in the fourth quarter, IPG said.
Recently developed diode-pumped Ytterbium doped pulse lasers have become commercially available from Naginels' partner Amplitude Systems (France) with femtosecond light pulses that are only 30 microns long; these do not induce micro-cracks but only locally change the refractive index of the glass.
In addition to strontium, other optical clocks are being designed based on calcium, mercury, aluminum, and ytterbium, each offering different advantages, according to JILA researchers.
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Of the lanthanide series, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, and ytterbium have been most often examined.
If the whole volume of the star were chock-a-block with praseodymium, ytterbium, and their brethren, astrophysicists realized, then a relatively few such stars scattered through the galaxy could have supplied all the rare-earth elements present in the Sun and solar system if they exploded and dispersed their contents at the ends of their lives.