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(from Persian zamindar, “landowner”), a land tax system introduced by the English colonial administration in northern, eastern, and central India between the 18th and 19th centuries.

The zamindari established the hereditary landownership rights of zamindars, the upper strata of the feudal class who were the collectors of feudal rents and taxes. The supreme landowner was the colonial administration. There were permanent zamindari, levied for the benefit of the colonial administration and fixed forever, and temporary zamindari, which were reviewed every 20 to 40 years. By the 1950’s, the zamindari was levied on 43 percent of the privately owned land in India and 31 percent of all privately owned land in Eastern Pakistan. The later evolution of the zamindari was accompanied by the formation of a large class of intermediary rent collectors between the main zamindars and the rent-paying direct producers. This hierarchy of intermediaries included 15 to 20 ranks and in some areas as many as 50 ranks.

The agrarian laws passed in India and Pakistan in the 1950’s provided for the elimination of the zamindari through the compensation of zamindars and other rent collectors for their loss of ownership rights to lands being worked by peasant renters; the large landowners retained the large areas of the so-called “homestead lands.” As a result of these reforms in India and Pakistan (and in Bangladesh since 1971), the right to collect land rents has been transferred to the government and the socioeconomic position of the upper land-owning class has been weakened.


Novaia istoriia Indii. Moscow, 1961.
Komarov, E. N. “K voprosu ob ustanovlenii postoiannogo oblozheniia po sisteme zamindari v Bengalii.” In Uchenye zapiski Instituta vostokovedeniia, vol. 12:Indiiskii sbornik. Moscow, 1955.
Kotovskii, G.G.Agrarnye reformy v Indii. Moscow, 1959.
Thorner, D.Agrarnyi stroi Indii. Moscow, 1959. (Translated from English.)


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Pakistan is a very big market and we want UAE investors to invest there," Zamindar told ?
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The statistics from our flagship mAgri program Khushaal Zamindar revealed that an encouraging percentage of users comprised women.
Titles such as Rai Bahadur, Sawai, Rai Sahab, Zamindar, Taluqdar, etc were prevalent in medieval and British India.
The male and female members of my family go to Eesakhel area of Punjab every year for harvesting wheat crop", said one Ihsan, adding that they get wheat bags with one-twelve proportion as if chief zamindar gets twelve wheat bags after crops threshing, he provides us one bag.
However, they are recognized in the village setting and differentiated from zamindar and other kammi zats through their ancestral occupations (Usman and Amjad, 2013).
The Zamindar colt is still a bit green but is learning all the time.