Umar

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Umar

(o͞omär`) or

Omar

(ō`mär), c.581–644, 2d caliph (see caliphatecaliphate
, the rulership of Islam; caliph , the spiritual head and temporal ruler of the Islamic state. In principle, Islam is theocratic: when Muhammad died, a caliph [Arab.,=successor] was chosen to rule in his place.
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). At first hostile to Islam, he was converted by 618, becoming an adviser to Muhammad. He succeeded Abu BakrAbu Bakr
, 573–634, 1st caliph, friend, father-in-law, and successor of Muhammad. He was probably Muhammad's first convert outside the Prophet's family and alone accompanied Muhammad on the Hegira.
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 as caliph without opposition in 634. In his reign Islam became an imperial power. The Muslim generals pushed conquests far and wide—into Syria, Egypt, and the Persian Empire. Umar also laid the administrative base of the empire, creating the office of kadi and establishing fixed taxes. He reopened the canals of Mesopotamia and the waterway from the Nile to the Red Sea. Umar was assassinated by a foreign slave. He had appointed a group to select his successor, and the choice fell on UthmanUthman
or Othman
, c.574–656, 3d caliph (644–56), also known as Uthman ibn al-Affan; son-in-law of Muhammad. He belonged to the great Umayyad family and was selected as caliph after the murder of Umar.
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.
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Omar

, Umar
died 644 ad, the second caliph of Islam (634--44). During his reign Islamic armies conquered Syria and Mesopotamia: murdered
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Later on, 'Umar ibn al-Khattab eventually banished them from the land during his reign as carrying out one of the prophet PBUH final orders mentioned in the previous hadith narrated by Ibn 'Abbas.
The Caliph 'Umar ibn al-Khattab came in 52nd place.
In earlier periods, the juristic principle of maslahah mursalah (public interest) was scarcely known, but in the last two centuries it has been elaborated in a way as to be undoubtedly unrecognizeable by earlier jurists, including the Caliph 'Umar ibn al-Khattab (d.
Hakim, "'Umar ibn al-Khattab and the Title Khalifat Allah," Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam 30 (2005), forthcoming.