Ulama

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Ulama

 

(ulema), Muslim theologians and canon lawyers. During the Middle Ages, the ulama presided over Muslim religious institutions, schools, and courts and acted as expounders of Islamic law. They also managed the income derived from the waqfs. Today, the ulama still exercise considerable influence in most countries of the Middle East.

References in periodicals archive ?
The 'ulama objected to 'Abbas Mirza's attempts to reform the Iranian Army by using European military sciences and uniforms.
Interestingly, then Naraqi mentions certain commercial transactions in which the 'ulama do not have the authority to interfere (Naraqi, Hodud-e, 98-99).
There is, however, evidence that at least some of the 'ulama disagreed with using the term jihad to describe Muslims' defending themselves against the invading unbelievers.
Although, again, not all 'ulama agreed on this permission.
Tanacabony (Qissas, 106) also suggests that people considered the 'ulama to be responsible for the second Ruso-Persian War.
The first turning point was the withdrawal of high 'ulama from party membership under the advice of ayatollah Muhsin al-Hakim in 1960.
A mixture of laymen and 'ulama at its headquarters became one of the characteristics of al-Da'wa, as Wiley describes, [23] and it caused several ideological conflicts among them, though not serious enough to break up the party.
The Islamic revolution offered a new opportunity for politicized 'ulama in Iraq to find a way out of the harsh oppression of the Iraqi regime, and to flee to Iran in order to pursue broader political activities there.
During the Iraq-Iran War, however, the negative influence of the Iranian regime on the party through 'ulama cannot be ignored, especially when the Iranian regime frequently tried to exploit these Iraqi anti-government organizations to attack the regime in Iraq.
The Council of Jurisprudence is composed of 'ulama of higher rank, and is supposed to give advice to the Leadership from a judicial and religious point of view.
SCIRI, which started its activities among exiled Iraqi 'ulama who fled to Iran in 1980, insists that it is majlis (=council), and sticks to its original style as an umbrella organization over various Islamic political movements.
Its activities which developed around Muhammad al-Shirazi are based on marja'iya, and core leaders of its activities are dominated by close relatives (al-Mudarrisi brothers, who are related to al-Shirazi) within the 'ulama circle in Karbala.