process technology

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process technology

The particular manufacturing method used to make silicon chips, which is measured by how small the transistor is. The driving force behind the design of integrated circuits is miniaturization, and process technology boils down to the never-ending goal of smaller. It means more computing power per square inch, and smallness enables the design of ultra-tiny chips that can be placed almost anywhere.

Feature Size Measured in Nanometers
The size of the features (the elements that make up the structures on a chip) are measured in nanometers. A 22 nm process technology refers to features 22 nm or 0.22 µm in size. Also called a "technology node" and "process node," early chips were measured in micrometers (see table below).

Historically, the feature size referred to the length of the silicon channel between source and drain in field effect transistors (see FET). Today, the feature size is typically the smallest element in the transistor or the size of the gate.

From 1,000 Down to 90
The feature size of the 486 chip in 1989 was 1,000 nm (one micron). By 2003, it was 90 nm, reduced by a little less than one millionth of a meter. What may seem like a minuscule reduction took thousands of man years and billions of dollars worth of R&D. In the table below, note the dramatic reductions in the early years of semiconductors.

Chips Are a Miracle of Miniaturization
To understand how tiny these features are, using 22 nm as an example, four thousand of them laid side-by-side are equal to the cross section of a human hair. See half-node and active area.

Half a Micron Is Huge
In a span of five years, the feature size on these AMD chips was reduced from .8 to .35 microns. Half a micron may seem insignificant, but not in the microminiature world of semiconductor manufacturing. As features get smaller, the chip runs faster and uses less energy to perform the same processing. (Image courtesy of Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.)

Semiconductor Feature Sizes(approximate for all vendors)       Nanometers  MicrometersYear     (nm)        (µm)

 1957   120,000      120.0
 1963    30,000       30.0
 1971    10,000       10.0
 1974     6,000        6.0
 1976     3,000        3.0
 1982     1,500        1.5
 1985     1,300        1.3
 1989     1,000        1.0
 1993       600        0.6
 1996       350        0.35
 1998       250        0.25
 1999       180        0.18
 2001       130        0.13
 2003        90        0.09
 2005        65        0.065
 2008        45        0.045
 2010        32        0.032
 2012        22        0.022
 2014        14        0.014
 2017        10        0.010
  ??          7        0.007
  ??          5        0.005

 Method       1        0.001
References in periodicals archive ?
ApPvalgoje maPiausiai LC-IVG, pagamintu naudojant 130 nm ir 40 nm technologini Pingsni.
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The platform is manufactured using an ST- proprietary 130 nm embedded non-volatile memory technology.
We had a brief but nice conversation between him in his 757 over Orlando and me in my humble Grumman near West Palm Beach, about 130 nm apart.
In this article, we focus on the mechanical properties of silica/PVC composites consisting of high wt% of 130 nm and 30 nm silica particles incorporated in a PVC polymer matrix.
The 20 Gb/s VCSELs were flipped chip packaged on an IBM-designed transceiver package with 130 nm CMOS ICs, and the full link was characterized by IBM Research with all six channels running error-free simultaneously.
can obtain lateral resolution 3D microscope images of objects down to 130 nm, the highest resolution achieved in a commercial device.
4 litre engine, which delivers 103 hp at 6,200 rpm and a maximum torque of 130 nm at 3,400 rpm and it is available with either the four-speed automatic or five-speed manual transmission.
4 litre engine, which delivers 103 hp @ 6200 rpm and a maximum torque of 130 Nm at 3400 rpm and it is available with either the 4-speed automatic or 5-speed manual transmission.
2 micron geometries once sufficed for GSM phones, today's 130 nm, 90 nm and 65 nm baseband processors are clocked at 150 to 300 MHz--faster clock speeds and higher gate counts equal more power draw as dictated by C*[V.