process technology

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process technology

The particular manufacturing method used to make silicon chips, which is measured by how small the transistor is. The driving force behind the design of integrated circuits is miniaturization, and process technology boils down to the never-ending goal of smaller. It means more computing power per square inch, and smallness enables the design of ultra-tiny chips that can be placed almost anywhere.

Feature Size Measured in Nanometers
The size of the features (the elements that make up the structures on a chip) are measured in nanometers. A 22 nm process technology refers to features 22 nm or 0.22 µm in size. Also called a "technology node" and "process node," early chips were measured in micrometers (see table below).

The Exact Measurements
Historically, the size referred to the length of the silicon channel between source and drain in field effect transistors (see FET). The sizes of other features are generally derived as a ratio of the channel length, where some may be larger and some smaller. For example, in a 90 nm process, the length of the channel may be 90 nm, but the width of the gate terminal may be only 50 nm.

From 1,000 Nanometers Down to 10
The feature size of the 486 chip in 1989 was 1,000 nanometers (one micron). By 2003, it was 90 nm. The size was reduced by slightly less than one millionth of a meter. What may seem like a minuscule reduction took thousands of man years and billions of dollars worth of R&D. In the table below, note the dramatic reductions early on.

Chips Are a Miracle of Miniaturization
To understand how tiny these feature sizes are, it would take six thousand of these elements laid side-by-side to equal the thickness of one human hair. See half-node and active area.

Half a Micron Is Huge
In a span of five years, the feature size on these AMD chips was reduced from .8 to .35 microns. Half a micron may seem insignificant, but not in the microminiature world of semiconductor manufacturing. As features get smaller, the chip runs cooler and faster. (Image courtesy of Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.)

Semiconductor Feature Sizes(approximate for all vendors)       Nanometers  MicrometersYear     (nm)        (µm)

 1957   120,000      120.0
 1963    30,000       30.0
 1971    10,000       10.0
 1974     6,000        6.0
 1976     3,000        3.0
 1982     1,500        1.5
 1985     1,300        1.3
 1989     1,000        1.0
 1993       600        0.6
 1996       350        0.35
 1998       250        0.25
 1999       180        0.18
 2001       130        0.13
 2003        90        0.09
 2005        65        0.065
 2008        45        0.045
 2010        32        0.032
 2012        22        0.022
 2014        14        0.014
 2017        10        0.010
  ??          7        0.007
  ??          5        0.005

 Method       1        0.001
References in periodicals archive ?
These include very fine feature size, powerful, radiation hard electronics in emerging technologies using feature sizes of 130 nm or 65 nm; low-cost silicon sensors in the emerging technology using 8 silicon wafers, also in Europe; environmentally-friendly cooling technologies using liquid carbondioxide; high performance and fast decision making logic using new more powerful FPGA, all to be produced at an industrial scale.
iPDKs of SilTerra's 130 nm Technology Now Available
In this article, we focus on the mechanical properties of silica/PVC composites consisting of high wt% of 130 nm and 30 nm silica particles incorporated in a PVC polymer matrix.
4 litre engine, which delivers 103 hp at 6,200 rpm and a maximum torque of 130 nm at 3,400 rpm and it is available with either the four-speed automatic or five-speed manual transmission.
4 litre engine, which delivers 103 hp @ 6200 rpm and a maximum torque of 130 Nm at 3400 rpm and it is available with either the 4-speed automatic or 5-speed manual transmission.
In this case it is an impressive 120bhp per tonne, with an increase in pulling power from 110 Nm to 130 Nm, which gives the cars improved mid-range acceleration.
Current state-of-the-art production processes use deep ultraviolet lasers at 248 nm and 193 nm to image circuits with critical features as small as 130 nm to 150 nm.
GRENOBLE, France -- Tiempo, expert in the design of advanced secured chips, today announced it has proven on silicon its secured transaction platform, TESIC, manufactured on TSMC 130 nm LP process.
The vehicle is equipped with Ducati's 1198 cc, liquid-cooled, L-Twin engine that is modified to generate 162bhp and 130 Nm of torque.
World's most power-efficient microcontroller, advanced 130 nm memory and RF analog-front-end to meet the need for fast-production and evolving functional requirements
This unique low cost chip is implemented in the advanced 130 nm CMOS process to deliver a comprehensive solution that minimizes customer development time and cost,'' said Vahid Toosi President and CEO of SiTune Corporation ''STN10R3000 resolves mobile DVB-T challenges by achieving best in class Doppler and reception performance under low power consumption while surpassing MBRAI2.
4-litre, 16-valve, four-cylinder petrol engine that delivers 95PS at 6,000rpm and 130 Nm of torque at 4,000 rpm, coupled with a choice of five-speed manual transmission and a four-speed automatic transmission.