Taurine

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taurine

[′tȯ‚rēn]
(organic chemistry)
NH2CH2CH2SO3H A crystalline compound that decomposes at about 300°C; present in bile combined with cholic acid.

Taurine

 

also known as β-aminoethanesulfonic acid, H2NCH2CH2SO3H, a natural amino sulfonic acid.

Taurine is readily soluble in water but poorly soluble in organic solvents. Its melting point is 328°–329°C (with decomposition). Taurine is present in large quantities in the muscles of some mollusks and worms. In vertebrates, including man, it is found in the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, muscles, liver, kidneys, blood, and milk. Amides consisting of taurine and bile acids—for example, taurocholic acid—are constituents of mammalian bile that assist in the emulsification and absorption of fats. Taurine is synthesized in the organism by enzymic oxidation of the sulfhydryl group (—SH) and by decarboxylation of the amino acid cysteine. Taurine is excreted with urine, both in the free state and in the form of derivatives with guanidine or carbamic acid. Upon entering the intestine, taurine is broken down to inorganic sulfides by the microflora.

REFERENCE

Meister, A. Biokhimiia aminokislot. Moscow, 1961. (Translated from English.)
References in periodicals archive ?
Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) can be detected in many animal tissues, existing principally as a free amino acid, but is not involved in protein synthesis, nor is it employed as an energy source in animals.
In many marine organisms, including solemyid clams and some deep-sea symbiotic species, taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is the dominant free amino acid (Alberic and Boulegue, 1990; Conway et al., 1992; Conway and McDowell Capuzzo, 1992; Pranal et al., 1995; Lee et al., 1997; Pruski et al., 1997).
Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is a free amino acid found ubiquitously in millimolar concentrations in all mammalian tissues.