telecine

(redirected from 3:2 pulldown)
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telecine

An umbrella term for converting movie content to TV/video. Pronounced "tel-uh-sin-ee" and "tel-uh-scene," the process was used offline to convert countless movies to videotape for ultimate distribution via TV, cable and satellite networks. The original telecine process dealt only with film to video conversion, but when digital TVs emerged in the late 1990s, telecine algorithms were built into DVD players and TVs and include frame rate conversion, deinterlacing and upconversion.

Frame Rate Conversion
Movies are shot at 24 frames per second (fps), and although advanced digital TVs support 24 fps and can display movies natively, analog TVs and many digital TVs cannot. As a result, movie material must be converted to either 30 interlaced frames or 60 progressive frames by the DVD player or TV. Since 24 does not divide evenly into 60, four progressive movie frames are converted to five interlaced or 10 progressive frames. The process, known as "3:2 pulldown" or "2:3 pulldown," cannot create a flawless copy of the original movie because 24 does not divide evenly into 30 or 60 (see below).

Reverse the Pulldown
Although new movies on DVD are in the progressive 24 fps format (24p), older movies on videotape, which have previously undergone the telecine process and contain the 3:2 conversion, are sometimes recorded on DVDs. If a DVD player or digital TV supports "cadence correction," it reverses any 3:2 cadences it finds back to full film frames before it applies any telecine processes (see cadence correction). See deinterlace, upconvert, 120 Hz and DCDi.


Convert to Interlaced Video
When converting to interlaced video, each movie frame is turned into two or three video fields, which creates an uneven distribution. In addition, a movie frame may get split into odd and even video frames (note red asterisks above "*"). As a result, unwanted artifacts are created if there is a dramatic change of color, brightness or motion from one movie frame to another. See 120 Hz.







Movies to Progressive Video
When converting to progressive scan at 60 fps (60p), each movie frame is turned into four or six video frames, creating an uneven distribution. However, unlike conversion to interlaced video, there is no chance of odd/even splitting in the final frames. Converting 24p to 60p is essentially a 6:4 pulldown process.
References in periodicals archive ?
And, with Sony's CineMotion reverse 3:2 pulldown technology, motion artifacts, resulting when 24-frame-per-second film is transferred to 30 frame-per-second video, are detected and minimized.
The H-series projectors' flawless reverse 3:2 pulldown and other processing technologies allow movies and other video to be displayed as the director intended them to be viewed -- without the artifacts and annoying jerkiness created by competing projectors.
With a 16:9 aspect ratio screen and native 720p resolution, the DL5500 features a 10 element lens system, first surface mirror, 3D Y/C comb filter and 3:2 pulldown detection.
Thomson has developed the exclusive SceniVision(TM) HD Picture System that includes next-generation ATSC receiver/decoder circuitry, InfiniFocus(TM) high-definition CRTs, Linear Motion Upconverter progressive scan technology, and Adaptive Reverse 3:2 Pulldown for the sharpest HDTV images.
The SceniVision HD Picture System includes next-generation ATSC receiver/decoder circuitry, InfiniFocus(TM) high-definition CRTs, Linear Motion Upconverter progressive scan Technology, and Adaptive Reverse 3:2 Pulldown for the sharpest HDTV images.
With various manufacturers now advertising the inclusion of technologies such as 3:2 pulldown detection, in their progressive-scan products, it is logical for us to offer them the right to use the relevant Faroudja patents," said Sage's president and CEO, Chandra Reddy.
Quadscan Elite has been enhanced with many features such as 3:2 pulldown detection and correction for film-based sources, aspect ratio control, switchable output filter and many more.
The patents included in the settlement relate to detecting the 3:2 pulldown sequence of film-originated video and deinterlacing techniques used to improve the picture quality of high resolution and large screen video displays.