Iran hostage crisis

(redirected from 444 Days)

Iran hostage crisis,

in U.S. history, events following the seizure of the American embassy in Tehran by Iranian students on Nov. 4, 1979. The overthrow of Muhammad Reza Shah PahleviMuhammad Reza Shah Pahlevi
, 1919–80, shah of Iran (1941–79). Educated in Switzerland, he returned (1935) to Iran to attend the military academy in Tehran. He ascended the throne in 1941 after his father, Reza Shah Pahlevi, suspected of collaboration with the
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 of Iran by an Islamic revolutionary government earlier in the year had led to a steady deterioration in Iran-U.S. relations. In response to the exiled shah's admission (Sept., 1979) to the United States for medical treatment, a crowd of about 500 seized the embassy. Of the approximately 90 people inside the embassy, 52 remained in captivity until the end of the crisis.

President CarterCarter, Jimmy
(James Earl Carter, Jr.), 1924–, 39th President of the United States (1977–81), b. Plains, Ga, grad. Annapolis, 1946.

Carter served in the navy, where he worked with Admiral Hyman G. Rickover in developing the nuclear submarine program.
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 applied economic pressure by halting oil imports from Iran and freezing Iranian assets in the United States. At the same time, he began several diplomatic initiatives to free the hostages, all of which proved fruitless. On Apr. 24, 1980, the United States attempted a rescue mission that failed. After three of eight helicopters were damaged in a sandstorm, the operation was aborted; eight persons were killed during the evacuation. Secretary of State Cyrus VanceVance, Cyrus Roberts,
1917–2002, U.S. secretary of state (1977–80), b. Clarksburg, W.Va., grad. Yale (B.A., 1939, LL.B., 1942). After seeing action in the Navy during World War II, Vance practiced law, becoming a respected international lawyer.
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, who had opposed the action, resigned after the mission's failure.

In 1980, the death of the shah in Egypt and the invasion of Iran by Iraq (see Iran-Iraq WarIran-Iraq War,
1980–88, protracted military conflict between Iran and Iraq. It officially began on Sept. 22, 1980, with an Iraqi land and air invasion of western Iran, although Iraqi spokespersons maintained that Iran had been engaging in artillery attacks on Iraqi towns
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) made the Iranians more receptive to resolving the hostage crisis. In the United States, failure to resolve the crisis contributed to Ronald Reagan's defeat of Carter in the presidential election. After the election, with the assistance of Algerian intermediaries, successful negotiations began. On Jan. 20, 1981, the day of President Reagan's inauguration, the United States released almost $8 billion in Iranian assets and the hostages were freed after 444 days in Iranian detention; the agreement gave Iran immunity from lawsuits arising from the incident.

In 2000 former hostages and their survivors sued Iran under the 1996 Antiterrorism Act, which permits U.S. citizens to sue foreign governments in cases of state-sponsored terrorism. The following year they won the lawsuit by default when Iran did not offer a defense. The U.S. State Dept. sought dismissal of the suit, arguing it would hinder its ability to negotiate international agreements, and a federal judge dismissed the plaintiffs' suit for damages in 2002, ruling that the agreement that resulted in their release barred awarding any damages.

Bibliography

See G. Sick, All Fall Down (1985).

References in periodicals archive ?
Jim McCafferty, 72, appeared in the dock in Belfast after spending 444 days on remand in prison.
The 72-year-old, from Raby Street in South Belfast, appeared in the dock after spending 444 days in custody in HMP Maghaberry in Co Antrim.
Embassy in Tehran and seized dozens of Americans, holding them hostage for 444 days.
She was an influential figure during the American 'hostage crisis' in 1979 where a group of Iranian students held 52 Americans hostage for 444 days, acting as spokesperson for the student group to foreign press.
They said such behavior is not strange, citing the 1979 storming of the American embassy in Tehran, and holding its staff captives for 444 days, the 1987 attack against the Saudi and Kuwaiti embassies respectively, the 1988 attack on the Russian embassy, the 2007 offensive on a Kuwaiti diplomat, the 2009 aggression against the Pakistani embassy, the 2011 attack on the British embassy and the latest attack on the Saudi embassy in Tehran and its consulate general in Mash-had in 2016.
Burnley goalkeeper Heaton will be rewarded with his first international start at the Stade de France, where Stoke's Butland will play the second half having not represented his country since suffering an ankle injury against Germany 444 days ago.
Burnley goalkeeper Heaton will be rewarded with his first international start at the Stade de France, where Stoke's Butland, the former Blues keeper, will play the second half having not represented his country since suffering an ankle injury against Germany 444 days ago.
It has had a role in many terrorist attacks, beginning with the US Embassy hostage crisis in Tehran during which American diplomats were held for 444 days.
Hossein Salami, second-in-command of Iran's Revolutionary Guard, made the comments Thursday outside the former US embassy in Tehran to mark 37 years since it was stormed by Iranian students, leading to the hostage crisis, in which 52 Americans were held inside for 444 days.
Washington severed relations with Tehran shortly after Iran's 1979 Islamic revolution when hardline Iranian students seized the US embassy in Tehran and took hostage 52 Americans for 444 days.
There were 52 men held hostage for 444 days and one other man released short of that when he fell ill.
The act comes as last week the US Congress passed a law that authorizes financial compensation to former US Embassy in Tehran staff (or their families) who passed 444 days as hostages in the custody of Iranian forces in 1979-80.