6-APA

6-APA

(pharmacology)
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Thus, Peak 9 was identified tentatively as ampicilloic acid and 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) oligomer.
Based on fragment ions, Peak 12 was tentatively identified as 6-APA ampicillin amide.
Peak number RT (min) MS (m/z) 9 11.1 566.1 [[M + H].sup.+] 12 13.9 548.1 [[M + H].sup.+] 13 15.2 673.2 [[M + H].sup.+] 14 15.5 483.1 [[M + H].sup.+] Peak number [MS.sup.2] (m/z) Identification 9 407.1; 248.1; 191.0 Ampicilloic acid and 6-APA oligomer 12 443.1; 358.1; 199.0 6-APA ampicillin amide 13 655.1; 514.1; 324.1; 191.0 Ampilloic acids and ampicilloic acids oligomer 14 439.1; 350.1; 239.1; 160.0 Isomer of D- phenylglycyl ampicillin
No podemos dejar de lado el empleo de penicilinoamidasa en la sintesis de antibioticos semisinteticos como la ampicilina, con la cual se produce el acido 6-aminopenicilanico (6-APA), gracias a la posibilidad de inmovilizacion de la enzima que permite obtener un producto libre de la misma como contaminante, y que se constituye en uno de los procesos enzimaticos de mayor uso en la industria farmaceutica.
Table - 1 Indonesia's import of basic materials for drugs and antibiotics, 1992-1997 Tons (US$ 000 Year 6-APA parace- Ampi- Amoxi- Others Total tamol cillin cillin 1992 129 1,479 6 4 990 2,608 8,037 8,112 968 354 44,620 62,091 1993 156 2,385 5 6 666 3,218 10,683 9,823 433 454 29,264 50,657 1994 143 2,277 7 4 738 3,169 10,061 8,405 562 314 29,593 48,935 1995 214 2,210 10 17 1,496 3,947 15,688 9,066 784 847 43,847 70,232 1996 149 2,146 19 15 920 3,249 12,889 9,272 1,486 1,011 42,223 66,881 1997(*) 191 1,591 22 44 724 2,572 12,313 5,866 918 2,415 28,231 49,743
Indonesia's 1996 import of basic materials for drugs and antibiotics, by country of origin Tons US$'000 Year 6-APA parace- Ampi - Amoxi - Others Total tamol cillin cillin China - 952 - - 431 1,383 - 3,466 - - 10,886 14,352 U S A - 1,134 - - 33 1,167 - 5,584 - - 4,453 10,037 Japan - - - - 242 242 - - - - 3,511 3,511 Austria 128 - - - 3 131 11,540 - - - 233 11,773 Thailand - 38 - - 5 43 - 138 - - 370 508 India - - 9 11 12 32 - - 551 776 1,092 2,419 Hongkong - 290 - - 11 31 - 74 - - 372 446 South Korea - - 3 1 25 29 - - 251 68 3,293 3,612 Sweden 10 - - - 1 11 417 - - - 43 460 Taiwan 8 - - - 3 11 612 - - - 90 702 France - 2 - - 5 7 - 7 - - 1,280 1,287 Others 3 - 6 3 149 161 320 - 684 167 16,600 17,771 Total 149 2,146 19 15 920 3,249 12,889 9,272 1,486 1,011 42,223 66,881
Production of SSPs is essentially a two-step process: first, penicillins (in bulk) are converted to 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) through a procedure mediated through chemicals or enzymes.
Recent Progress in Enzymatic Transformation of Penicillin G to 6-APA
Enzymatic hydrolysis of Penicillin G to obtain 6-APA is one of the most relevant examples of industrial implementation of biocatalysts [1, 31, 32].
In a recent study, the enzymatic hydrolysis of Penicillin G for production of 6-APA was obtained by using Penicillin G acylase as catalyst in an aqueous-methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) system.
6-APA: Precursor for Semisynthesis of [beta]-Lactam Antibiotics
In pharmaceutical industries, 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) is a very important intermediate product, primarily for being the precursor for the semisynthesis of [beta]-lactam antibiotics [35] such as ampicillin and amoxicillin.