Demian Lekomtcev and Roman Marsalek, "Comparison of 802.11af and 802.22
standards-physical layer and cognitive functionality," in Proc.
(i) Based on the requirements of long lifetime and less time delay for a power transmission line monitoring network, we propose a cluster-divided two-level CR 802.22
WRAN-based power transmission line monitoring system, in which first, the electrical and mechanical parameters of a transmission line in a cluster are collected and forwarded by infrastructure-mounted local sensors to cognitive relays attached in certain locations on power line transmission poles (termed cognitive poles in the rest of this paper).
 IEEE 802.22
Working Group, IEEE P802.22/D1.0 draft standard for wireless regional area networks part 22: Cognitive wireless RAN medium access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) specifications: Policies and procedures for operation in the TV bands, Apr.
Caldwell, "IEEE 802.22
: the first cognitive radio wireless regional area network standard," IEEE Communications Magazine, vol.
Shin, "In-band spectrum sensing in IEEE 802.22
WRANs for incumbent protection", IEEE Trans.
The first international regulation which establishes CRs based system is IEEE 802.22
, where the access of unlicensed CR devices on (TV) frequency spectrum (54 MHz-862 MHz) is permitted .
Technology System Data rate IEEE 802.11g/WiFi BAN/PAN 54 Mbps IEEE 802.11n/WiFi BAN/PAN 540 Mbps IEEE 802.15.4 BAN/PAN 240 Kbps IEEE 802.16e/WiMAX WAN 30 Mbps IEEE 802.20 WAN 16 Mbps IEEE 802.22
WAN 18 Mbps WiBro WAN 18 Mbps Technology Cell size Frequency range IEEE 802.11g/WiFi 50-60m 2.4 GHz IEEE 802.11n/WiFi 50-60m 2.4 GHz IEEE 802.15.4 10-30 m 2.4 Ghz IEEE 802.16e/WiMAX Upto 70-80 Km 2-6 GHz IEEE 802.20 >15 km 3.5 GHz IEEE 802.22
40 km 54-862 MHz WiBro 1 km 2.3-2.4 GHz TABLE 3: Mapping based on application, architecture, and sensing.
In aggregate interference control, the Q-learning was proposed to optimize the power transmission of secondary CRs in a WRAN IEEE 802.22
CR network (CRN) .
The first IEEE 802.22
working group that was based on cognitive radio was established in November 2004, with the purpose to address the wireless wide area network access using cognitive radio technology in broadcast and TV bands .
They survey wireless and mobile networks with a focus on the IEEE 802.22
norm, which is dedicated to cognitive radio; describe cognitive radio as a domain at the boundary between telecommunications and artificial intelligence; apply the notion of agent from artificial intelligence to multi-agent systems; and put it all together to permit dynamic spectrum access.
The IEEE 802.22
wireless regional area network (WRAN) standard  allows WRAN systems to utilize channels in the UHF and VHF bands in the frequency range from 54 MHz to 862 MHz, as long as they do not interfere with licensed broadcast incumbent services on these bands, such as wireless microphones and TV broadcasting services.