aspirin

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aspirin,

acetyl derivative of salicylic acid (see salicylatesalicylate
, any of a group of analgesics, or painkilling drugs, that are derivatives of salicylic acid. The best known is acetylsalicylic acid, or aspirin. Now often made synthetically, they were originally derived from salicin,
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) that is used to lower fever, relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and thin the blood. Common conditions treated with aspirin include headache, muscle and joint pain, and the inflammation caused by rheumatic fever and arthritis. Aspirin is believed to act against fever, pain, and inflammation by interfering with the synthesis of specific prostaglandinsprostaglandin
, any of a group of about a dozen compounds synthesized from fatty acids in mammals as well as in lower animals. Prostaglandins are highly potent substances that are not stored but are produced as needed by cell membranes in virtually every body tissue.
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 in the body. Because of its ability to inhibit the formation of blood clots, aspirin is also used in low doses to prevent heart attack and stroke in persons with cardiovascular disease and to control unstable angina. The drug's usefulness in preventing certain cancers, the dangerous high blood pressure that sometimes occurs during pregnancy (toxemia), and migraine headaches is also under investigation.

Normal dosage may cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or gastrointestinal bleeding. Large doses cause acid-base imbalance and respiratory disturbances and can be fatal, especially in children. Aspirin also has been linked to the development of Reye's syndrome (a combination of acute encephalopathy and fatty infiltration of internal organs) in children who have taken it for viral infections. Acetaminophenacetaminophen
, an analgesic and fever-reducing medicine. It is an active ingredient in many over-the-counter medicines, including Tylenol and Midol. Introduced in the early 1900s, acetaminophen is a coal tar derivative that acts by interfering with the synthesis of
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 (Tylenol), which does not cause gastric irritation but does lower fever and relieve pain, is often substituted for aspirin.

Aspirin, although usually made synthetically now, was originally derived from salicin, the active ingredient in willow bark. Willow bark had been used for centuries in folk medicine in certain parts of the world. Acetylsalicylic acid was first prepared by the German chemist Felix Hoffmann, an employee of Friedrich Bayer & Co., in 1897. It is now the active ingredient in many over-the-counter preparations; estimates put American consumption at 80 billion tablets annually.

See analgesicanalgesic
, any of a diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain. Analgesic drugs include the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as the salicylates, acetaminophen, narcotic drugs such as morphine, and synthetic drugs with morphinelike action such as meperidine
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.

aspirin

[′as·prən]
(organic chemistry)

aspirin

1. a white crystalline compound widely used in the form of tablets to relieve pain and fever, to reduce inflammation, and to prevent strokes. Formula: CH3COOC6H4COOH
2. a tablet of aspirin

Aspirin

(language, tool)
A freeware language from MITRE Corporation for the description of neural networks. A compiler, bpmake, is included. Aspirin is designed for use with the MIGRAINES interface.

Version: 6.0, as of 1995-03-08.

ftp://ftp.cognet.ucla.edu/alexis/.
References in periodicals archive ?
He concluded that patients receiving 81mg of ASA daily could undergo dental extraction without bleeding risks.
Such products as new Aspirin Regimen Bayer 81mg with Calcium, the first and only low-dose aspirin with calcium, are intended to demonstrate the supplier's commitment to developing innovative products which meet the needs of America's aging population.
Korbely, who has been a heavy goods vehicle driver for 30 years, was found to have 81mg of alcohol in 100ml of breath when he was breathalysed by the police - more than twice the legal limit for driving.
Nutrition Information: Without Salt CAL 48 CHO 3g PRO 2g FAT 4g CHOL 3mg CALCIUM 18mg POTASSIUM 81mg SODIUM 96mg * FIBER 1g * With salt, 896 milligrams.
A blood sample showed a reading of 81mg in 100ml of blood, the legal limit being 80mg.
A blood test revealed he had 81mg of alcohol in his blood, 1mg over the legal limit.
But when the retired power station manager was stopped by police near his home in Martle- sham, Suffolk, a blood test proved he had 81mg of alcohol in 100ml of blood.