ACE inhibitor


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Related to ACE inhibitor: Angiotensin receptor blocker, Beta blockers

ACE inhibitor

(ā'sē'ē`, ās) or

angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor

(ăn'jēōtĕn`sĭn), drug used to reduce elevated blood pressure (see hypertensionhypertension
or high blood pressure,
elevated blood pressure resulting from an increase in the amount of blood pumped by the heart or from increased resistance to the flow of blood through the small arterial blood vessels (arterioles).
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), to treat congestive heart failurecongestive heart failure,
inability of the heart to expel sufficient blood to keep pace with the metabolic demands of the body. In the healthy individual the heart can tolerate large increases of workload for a considerable length of time.
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, and to alleviate strain on hearts damaged as a result of a heart attack (see infarctioninfarction,
blockage of blood circulation to a localized area or organ of the body resulting in tissue death. Infarctions commonly occur in the spleen, kidney, lungs, brain, and heart.
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). ACE inhibitors block production of an enzyme that helps convert the protein angiotensin 1 into angiotensin 2, a protein that makes blood vessels constrict and promotes retention of fluid, raising blood pressure. Thus ACE inhibitors act to widen the blood vessels and make it easier for the heart to pump blood through the body. captopril (Capoten), ramipril (Altace), and enalapril (Vasotec) are commonly used ACE inhibitors. Angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs), such as losartan (Cozaar) and valsartan (Diovan), reduce hypertension by displacing angiotensin 2 from receptors on the surface of cells. ARBs are used as alternatives to the less expensive ACE inhibitors because they have fewer side effects.
References in periodicals archive ?
When examining which of these variables were significantly associated with women's failure to achieve the target dose of an ACE inhibitor or ARB, older age and worse kidney function were revealed to be the main factors.
Compared with placebo or no treatment, ACE inhibitor therapy reduced the risk of death from any cause (6 studies; 11,350 patients; RR=0.84; 95% CI, 0.730.97).
Angioedema occurs because ACE inhibitors impair bradykinin degradation, leading to increase in bradykinin levels.
CHICAGO -- Smoking appears to be a modifiable risk factor for progression of chronic kidney disease associated with primary hypertension in patients treated with ACE inhibitors, Bethany Roehm, MD, reported at a meeting sponsored by the American Society of Nephrology.
Of the 14 patients receiving ACE inhibitors, 14 (100%) experienced flushing or hypotension, whereas 20 (7%) of the 285 patients not receiving an ACE inhibitor had a reaction.
The group of patients on an antihypertensive other than an ACE inhibitor had a mean decline in exam scores of 0.64 points per year.
Determinants of the dose of ACE inhibitor were examined by stepwise multiple regression analysis.
An example of an effective ACE inhibitor is captopril, which the Food and Drug Administration approved for treating kidney disease of Type I diabetes.
Yancy of Northwestern University in Chicago, recommend that the ARNI replace an ACE inhibitor or an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) for patients who have been tolerating these therapies alongside standard care with a beta-blocker and, for some patients, an aldosterone antagonist as well.
The company stated that Entresto is usually administered along with other heart failure therapies in place of an ACE inhibitor or other angiotensin receptor blocker.
Major Finding: That ACE inhibitor use in the first trimester was not seen independently associated with an increase in the risk of major birth defects compared with other antihypertensive drugs, contrary to a widely cited earlier study that found an increased risk.