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(ā`ə), city (1990 pop. 15,820), seat of Pontotoc co., S central Okla.; inc. 1904. It is a large cattle market and the center of a rich oil and ranch area. The city is also noted for horsebreeding, especially of quarter horses. East Central State Univ. and the Sciences and Natural Resources Center of Oklahoma are there, and the Robert S. Kerr Water Research Center (a federal laboratory) is just to the south.


see programming languageprogramming language,
syntax, grammar, and symbols or words used to give instructions to a computer. Development of Low-Level Languages

All computers operate by following machine language programs, a long sequence of instructions called machine code that is
..... Click the link for more information.


(computer science)
A computer language that was chosen by the United States Department of Defense to support the development of embedded systems, and uses the language Pascal as a base to meet the reliablity and efficiency requirements imposed by these systems.


Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)

A federal law, enacted in 1990, requiring that public accommodations be accessible to those having physical disabilities; this law mandates that existing physical barriers be replaced or modified so there are no impediments to access by the physically disabled. For detailed information, write the US Equal Employment Opportunities Commission, 1801 L Street, NW, Washington, DC 20507. See American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Standard A117.1-1992. Also see Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards and physical disability.


a high-level computer programming language designed for dealing with real-time processing problems: used for military and other systems


(After Ada Lovelace) A Pascal-descended language, designed by Jean Ichbiah's team at CII Honeywell in 1979, made mandatory for Department of Defense software projects by the Pentagon. The original language was standardised as "Ada 83", the latest is "Ada 95".

Ada is a large, complex, block-structured language aimed primarily at embedded applications. It has facilities for real-time response, concurrency, hardware access and reliable run-time error handling. In support of large-scale software engineering, it emphasises strong typing, data abstraction and encapsulation. The type system uses name equivalence and includes both subtypes and derived types. Both fixed and floating-point numerical types are supported.

Control flow is fully bracketed: if-then-elsif-end if, case-is-when-end case, loop-exit-end loop, goto. Subprogram parameters are in, out, or inout. Variables imported from other packages may be hidden or directly visible. Operators may be overloaded and so may enumeration literals. There are user-defined exceptions and exception handlers.

An Ada program consists of a set of packages encapsulating data objects and their related operations. A package has a separately compilable body and interface. Ada permits generic packages and subroutines, possibly parametrised.

Ada support single inheritance, using "tagged types" which are types that can be extended via inheritance.

Ada programming places a heavy emphasis on multitasking. Tasks are synchronised by the rendezvous, in which a task waits for one of its subroutines to be executed by another. The conditional entry makes it possible for a task to test whether an entry is ready. The selective wait waits for either of two entries or waits for a limited time.

Ada is often criticised, especially for its size and complexity, and this is attributed to its having been designed by committee. In fact, both Ada 83 and Ada 95 were designed by small design teams to be internally consistent and tightly integrated. By contrast, two possible competitors, Fortran 90 and C++ have both become products designed by large and disparate volunteer committees.

See also Ada/Ed, Toy/Ada.

Home of the Brave Ada Programmers. Ada FAQs (hypertext), text only.,,

E-mail: <>.

Usenet newsgroup: news:comp.lang.ada.

An Ada grammar including a lex scanner and yacc parser is available. E-mail: <>.

Another yacc grammar and parser for Ada by Herman Fischer.

An LR parser and pretty-printer for Ada from NASA is available from the Ada Software Repository.

Adamakegen generates makefiles for Ada programs.

["Reference Manual for the Ada Programming Language", ANSI/MIL STD 1815A, US DoD (Jan 1983)]. Earlier draft versions appeared in July 1980 and July 1982. ISO 1987.


A high-level programming language developed by the U.S. Department of Defense along with the European Economic Community and many other organizations. It was designed for embedded applications and process control but is also used for logistics applications. Ada is a Pascal-based language that is very comprehensive.

Named After a Countess
Ada was named after Augusta Ada Byron (1815-1852), Countess of Lovelace and daughter of the poet Lord Byron and mathematician Annabella Milbanke Byron. Ada also became a mathematician and was the colleague of Charles Babbage, who was developing his Analytical Engine. Some of her programming notes for the machine have survived, giving her the distinction of being the first documented programmer in the world.

The following Ada program converts Fahrenheit to Celsius:

 with Text_IO;
 procedure Convert is
 package Int_IO is new Text_IO.Integer_IO(Integer);
 Fahrenheit : Integer;
  Text_IO.Put_Line("Enter Fahrenheit");
  Text_IO.Put("Celsius is ");
  Int_IO.Put((Fahrenheit-32) * 5 / 9);
 end Convert;
References in periodicals archive ?
ADA Sign Depot and its affiliated websites provide a wide range of ADA signs and related products, including ADA and Title 24 compliant Restroom signs, Exit and Entrance signage, custom made ADA Braille signs in a wide variety of materials, as well as ADA pads and truncated domes, and regulation handicap parking signage.
Still, says Hamilton, there are a few aspects of the ADA approach that may be cause for concern.
While it is helpful to have someone on staff who is familiar with ADA requirements, such as an ADA Coordinator, it is important to work with a professional who understands the process and the results of ADA investigations.
Since the ADA was enacted, American courts have struggled with the meaning of the ADA.
Only a brave employer will dismiss the prospect that some employee down the road will parlay such a determination into an official finding of ADA coverage.
Jones (1991) observed that the ADA contains a specific exception clause relating to insurance.
But that cell, with one normal copy of the gene, would alone have been able to make more ADA enzyme than multiple cells with only defective copies.
He also reviewed the "20 percent rule," citing as an example that a construction project budgeted for $1 million, spending $100,000 on ADA requirements would require an additional $100,000 to be spend on "path of travel.
Tests also showed increased ADA activity in her peripheral blood T-cells.
Prepare yourself to make requests as a matter of your increased productivity rather than your rights under the ADA.
44 tax credit in response to the immediate needs to the ADA (effective after Nov.
The ADA prohibits discrimination against disabled employees or applicants who otherwise are qualified to do the essential elements of a job with or without reasonable accommodation.