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(from Arabic amir al bahr, “ruler on the sea”), a navy rank. It was first used in Europe in the 12th century in Venice and Genoa and later spread to the navies of other countries. In Russia admiral ranks (admiral general, admiral, vice admiral, and rear admiral) were introduced by Peter I in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. The May 7, 1940, decree of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet created the following ranks in the USSR Navy: rear admiral, vice admiral, admiral, and admiral of the fleet; and in the navy engineering corps, engineer rear admiral, engineer vice admiral, and engineer admiral. On March 3, 1955, the rank of admiral of the fleet of the Soviet Union replaced the rank of admiral of the fleet, and on April 18, 1962, the rank of admiral of the fleet was reintroduced and added to all those existing.